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TERI Information Digest on Energy and Environment
Year : 2002, Volume : 1, Issue : 1
First page : ( 117) Last page : ( 123)
Print ISSN : 0972-6721.

Control technologies

 


[157]'Waste' coir pith - a potential biomass for the treatment of dyeing waste waters
Namasivayam C, Kumar MD, Selvi K, Begum RA. 2001Textile industry is one of the major industries, which consumes considerable amount of water in the manufacturing process. Frequent changes of dyestuffs employed in the dyeing process cause considerable variation in the waste water characteristics, particularly the pH, colour, and waste water COD concentration. Strong colour is another important component of the textile waste water, which is very difficult to deal with. Removal of acid dyes (acid violet and acid brilliant blue) and basic dyes (rhodamine B and methylene blue) was carried out using 'waste' coir pith as adsorbent. Parameters like agitation time, adsorbent dosage, and pH effect were studied. Adsorption followed the first-order rate expression. The equilibrium data fit well with both Langmuir and Freundlich models of adsorption. Desorption experiments confirmed that major mode of adsorption is ion-exchange for the dyes acid brilliant blue and methyl-ene blue whereas acid violet showed mainly physical adsorption. Chemisorption seems to be the major mode of adsorption for rhodamine B.
(5 figures, 3 tables, 29 figures)
Biomass and Bioenergy21(6):477–483
Insititute for Technical Chemistry,
section WGT, Karlsruhe Research Centre, P O Box 3640, D - 76021 Karlsruhe, Germany
<cnamasi@vsnl.com>

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[158]Evaluation of mass-transfer coefficient of free fall — cascade-aerator
Thacker NP, Katkar SL, and Rudra A. 2002The mass-transfer coefficient of a free-fall cascade-aerator unit of 15 million litres per day was evaluated for its efficiency in the removal of a class of volatile organics, the THMs (trihalomethanes). These compounds are carcinogenic and occur as a result of chlorination of natural waters. Due to the volatile nature of the THMs, the efficiency of aeration as a potential technique for their removal has been studied. The principle behind aeration is gas-transfer, according to which the gas-liquid interface is hypothesized to consist of a gas and liquid film through which gas is transferred by molecular diffusion until equilibrium is attained. Experimentally, it has been established that compounds of environmental concern, like THMs can be volatilized from water using an agitator like cascade aerator. The KL value obtained from the laboratory experiments and the theoretical approach has been estimated as 2.93 and 3.26 per hour. Although the laboratory value is found to be low, the THMs residuals in treated water were within the specified WHO GV (World Health Organization guideline value). A more conservative cascade-aerator for THMs removal may be designed based on this study.
(2 figures, 2 tables, 12 references)
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment74:1–9
National Environment Engineering Research Institute,
Nagpur, India
<npthacker@yahoo.co.in>

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[159]Kinetic analysis on anaerobic digestion of source-sorted organic fractions of municipal solid waste and domestic sewage
Sundararajan R, Jayanthi S, and Suganthi SK. 2001Kinetic study using Chen and Hashimoto model on anaerobic digestion of SSOFMSW (source-sorted organic fractions of municipal solid waste) and domestic sewage was done in a laboratory scale biodigester. The sample analysed was obtained from the source itself before it reaches the MSW (municipal solid waste) stream. The organic wastes, like fruit waste, garbage, yard waste were separately collected from residents and commercial markets. The system has been operated in semi-continuous mode, at ambient temperature at an organic loading rate of 1 kg VS/m3 day at different hydraulic retention times in day. Specific gas yield was 0.62 m3/kg VS. Using Chen and Hashimoto model, the kinetic parameters, such as ultimate methane production rate (Bo) of 0.75, maximum specific growth rate Fm of 0.10, dimensionless kinetic parameter k = 1.0, and, methane production rate was 0.45. The results suggested that the kinetic parameters determined can be used for the design of digesters and it is found to be economical to treat SSOFMSW in conjunction with domestic sewage.
(2 figures, 5 tables, 7 references)
Indian Journal of Environmental Protection21(5):416–419
Govern merit College of Technology,
Department of Civil Engineering, Coimbatore - 641 013, India

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[160]Assessment of microbial pollution in major rivers of Tamil Nadu by MAR indexing
Sujatha G, Gomathinayagam P, and Lakshmanaperumalsamy P. 2001MAR (multiple antibiotic resistance) index of both faecal and non-faecal bacteria was employed to assess the quality and risk of microbial contamination in major rivers of Tamil Nadu, namely, Kaveri, Vaigai, Bhavani, and Thamarabarani. Invariably, the study exhibited a high incidence of pathogenic organisms, in all the four rivers. Antibiotic susceptibility test of organisms revealed that most of the bacteria were resistant to more than 2 antibiotics that were tested. It indicates a high prevalence of multiple antibiotic resistant pathogenic organisms in rivers. MAR index of bacterial strains isolated from these rivers exceeded the high risk level of contamination (i.e. > 0.250). It indicates that these rivers are contaminated with bacterial strains originating from high risk sources. Contamination of highly resistant pathogenic organisms in the rivers shows unsuitability of these rivers for domestic purpose, that untreated water is not safe for drinking purpose. Hence, adequate measures should be taken to check out the antibiotic resistant organisms in the rivers before use.
(1 figure, 4 tables, 12 references)
Indian Journal of Environmental Protection21(4):305–309
Bharathiar University,
Department of Environmental Sciences, Coimbatore - 641 046, India

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[161]Adsorption kinetics of copper and lead using bagasse and fly ash as low-cost adsorbents
Rao M, Parwate AV, and Bhole AG. 2001Removal of Cu2+ and Pb2+ ions from aqueous solutions was investigated using raw bagasse and fly ash, the waste generated in sugar mills and boilers respectively, as low-cost potential adsorbents. The results were compared with activated carbon under identical conditions. Experiments were conducted at room temperature to determine the effects of pH, contact time, adsorbent dose, initial adsorbate concentration, and adsorbent particle size, on the uptake of copper and lead in a batch adsorption process. The kinetics of adsorption and extent of adsorption at equilibrium are dependent on the physical and chemical characteristics of the adsorbent, adsorbate and experimental system. Results of the laboratory studies were used for kinetic studies to understand the mechanism of the adsorption process. The results shows that the adsorption capacity decreased in the order, fly ash > bagasse > powdered activated carbon for the removal of Cu2+ ions and, powdered activated carbon > bagasse > fly ash for the removal of Pb2+ions under optimum conditions.
(5 figures, 4 tables, 10 references)
Journal of Environmental Studies and Policy4(1):11–19
Department of Civil Engineering,
College of Engineering, Badnera - 444 701, India

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[162]Measurements of dry deposition of gaseous and particulate nitrate to marble at a suburban site
Kumar R, Rani A, Singh SP, Kumari MK, Srivastava SS. 2001Dry deposition of nitrate on marble was measured at Dayalbagh in a semi-arid region of India in the winter season. The dry deposition rate of nitrate was 2.1 ± 1.3 mg/m2/d with corresponding ambient concentrations of HNO3 vapour and particulate NO­ of 0.84 ± 0.48 μg/m3 and 7.9 ±1.8 μg/m33, respectively. The estimated dry deposition of HNO3 was 0.25 ± 0.14 mg/m2/d while that for NO­ was 1.85 ± 1.44 mg/m32/d. The higher flux of particulate NO­ at this site is due to the basic nature of aerosol particles dominated by soil tracers and incorporation of HNO3 vapour into the particulate by adsorption to particle surfaces. The percentage contribution of NO­3 towards total nitrate (HNO3 ± NO­3) deposition was 88.1 and 11.9 of HNO3. The calculated dry deposition velocity of NO­3 was 0.30 ±0.17 cm/s, higher than the values of Vd reported by foliar extraction, and lower than those measured by the surrogate surface and through fall methods.
(1 figure, 1 table, 21 references)
Journal of Environmental Studies and Policy4(1):45–61
Department of Chemistry,
Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Dayalbagh, Agra - 282 005, India

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[163]Dry deposition of aerosol particles at a semi-arid rural site
Singh SP, Rani A, Kumar R, Satsangi GS, Kumari KM, Srivastava SS. 2001Dry deposition of aerosol particles was determined at Rampur located about 75 km south-east of Agra, during 1997/98. Deposition fluxes of the major ionic species F­, Cl, NO3­, SO2­4 , Na+, K+ Ca2+, Mg2+ and NH+ were determined using polypropylene surfaces. The observed flux varied between 1.0 ± 0.9 and 5.4 ±2.1 mg/m2/d. The calculated dry deposition flux was found to vary between 0.20 ± 0.20 and 3.5 ± 6.4 mg/m2/d for various ions. Deposition flux showed a seasonal variation with maximum rates during the winter followed by summer and a minimum during the monsoon.
(1 figure, 6 tables, 19 references)
Journal of Environmental Studies and Policy4(1):1–10
Department of Chemistry,
Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Dayalbagh, Agra-282 005, India

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[164]Heavy metal accumulation in lichens from the Hetauda industrial area Narayani zone Makwanpur district, Nepal
Pandey V, Upreti DK, Pathak R, Pal A. 2002The use of lichens in biomonitoring of particulate pollutants has gained increasing acceptance in recent years. Most of the work on accumulation of metals by lichens was focused on pollution from smelters, power plants, busy roads, urban sites and rural areas. However, biomonitoring of airborne heavy metals is only a complement to measurement by instruments. The present analysis of lichens for different mineral concentrations could provide a method for monitoring atmospheric deposition of elements in an area. Lichen samples collected in and around Hetauda Industrial area, Narayani zone, Makwanpur district, Nepal, were analysed for Cr, Ni, Pb, Zn, Ca, Mn, Fe, Si, and Al. The samples from the location inside the industrial area have higher levels of metal than the outside areas. Pyxine meissnerina growing inside the industrial area accumulated higher levels of all the metals analysed.
(1 figure, 2 tables, 17 references)
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment73(3):221–228
Stress Physiology Lab,
National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow, India
<ppushpangadan@hotmail.com>

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[165]Vermicompost from different solid wastes using treated dairy effluent
Ravichandran C, Chandrasekaran GE, and Priyadharsini FC. 2001A study was carried out to evaluate the impact of treated dairy effluent in vermicomposting. Megascolex maritii were used for the study. Three different kinds of wastes, i.e. garbage (heterogeneous waste), fruit and vegetable wastes, and meat wastes, were used separately. Six eco-bins, 3 maintained as control, in which good quality water was used, and 3 were maintained as treated, in which treated diary effluent was added to maintain the optimum moisture content of 55%-60%. Nutrient values were determined from the compost obtained using treated diary effluent and compared with that of the control. From these results, it was found that NPK values varied in compost obtained from different types of wastes. It has also been found that the composting period was greatly reduced with the use of treated diary effluent. NPK values were maximum in compost obtained from garbage with the use of treated dairy effluent. In other wastes the NPK values varied.
(5 tables, 9 references)
Indian Journal of Environmental Protection21(6):538–542
Bishop Heber College,
PGand Research Department of Environmental Sciences, Tiruchirapalli-620 017, India

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[166]Status of the characteristics of effluent from iron ore beneficiation plants in India and it s management
Ghose MK and Sen PK. 2001Effluents from iron ore beneficiation plants are usually disposed in tailing ponds. The tailing pond deposits have impacts on environment. The nature of the effluent coming out of the beneficiation plant depends on the type of ore, being treated, the milling operation used to beneficiate the ore and the water content in the effluent. In the present investigation, studies were conducted at three iron ore mines, namely, Barsna, Bolani and Dalli, in India. The study areas have been described and the samples collected from the different locations were analysed on regular basis. The results obtained from each mine have been discussed and the status of the characteristics of the effluent has been evaluated. The data revealed that the general pollution was due to the increase of suspended solids and iron. Most of the heavy metal constituents were found to be removed in the tailing pond and provision of the tailing pond could be considered as a kind of conservation of resources for the future. Minerals can be exploited at a later date by adopting futuristic technology and most of the heavy metal constitutes can be removed in the tailing pond. It would be worthwhile to recover the decanted water from the tailing pond to recycle it in the plant. It will lead to less consumption of raw water and cause less surface water pollution. For the treatment of the effluent to maintain the feed water quality and to abate surface water pollution, the proposed scheme may be adopted. The methodology adopted to evaluate the status of the characteristics of the iron ore beneficiation plant effluent and its management may be useful on industrial scale for various sites.
(1 figure, 2 tables, 18 references)
Indian Chemical Engineer43(2):95–98
Centre of Mining Environment,
Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad - 826 004, India

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[167]Treatment of dairy effluent with fixed film bioreactor technology
Chaubey M. 2002This study was conducted to demonstrate the potential of the fixed film bioreactor technology for the treatment of dairy effluent. Fixed film bioreactor based waste water treatment plant having capacity of 150 KLD (kilolitre per day) was constructed in Daily Foods India Limited for this purpose. From the present study it was observed that waste water coming out from the dairy industries has a high concentration of oil and grease content, moderate BOD (biological oxygen demand) and COD in the waste water, are more than the tolerance limits prescribed by the ISI (Indian Standards Institute) for discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface water as well as on land irrigation. The fixed film bioreactor technology based waste water treatment plant is able to treat the effluent and bring down the pollution content within PCB (pollution control board) standards. The treated effluent sample from fixed film bioreactor based waste water treatment plant was examined in an approved laboratory. This technology possess advantage of low power consumption, small area requirement, and high purification rates. In this paper an attempt has also been made to describe the treatment scheme and pollutants removal efficiency of plant for the treatment of dairy effluent using fixed film bioreactor technology.
(1 figure, 2 tables, 7 references)
Environmental Pollution Control Journal5(2):36–38
Centre for Energy Studies,
NT, New Delhi

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[168]Removal and recovery of arsenic from synthetic solution by the growing culture of bacillus subtilis: a laboratory scale investigation
Markanday N and Kaur A. 2002Arsenic occurs naturally in a wide range of minerals. Among all the arsenic compounds existing in the environment, arsenite is almost ten times more toxic than arsenate and approximately seventy times more toxic than methylated compounds. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a method for removal of such a hazardous metal. Soil samples were collected from a disposal site of a electroplating industry to isolate metals accumulating microflora. After repeated sub culturing, the isolate was found in the pure form and tentatively identified as Bacillus Subtilis. Uniformly suspended cells of the test organism, when grown in arsenic free culture and then re-suspended in aqueous solution of Arsenic salt, start adsorbing/accumulating arsenic. The rate and extent of adsorption/accumulation was observed to be dependent on pH, metal concentration. The growth conditions for maximum removal of the metal ion from the medium were studied. To recover the target metal from the loaded biomass of the test organism, EDTA (ethylene diammine tetracetic acid) solution was applied in batch mode. The observed recovery of the test metal ranges between 19%-96% in the laboratory condition, depending upon the metabolic state of the test organism. Investigations reveal that removal of arsenic is related to growth. The removal efficiency was higher at lower metal concentration. Experimental results indicate that the organism B. subtilis can be considered as an eco-friendly option for biosorption of arsenic from the aqueous environment.
(4 figures, 16 references)
Environmental Pollution Control Journal5(2):56–60
School of Environmental Management,
GGSIU, New Delhi, India

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[169]Natural systems for waste water treatment and management
Nandy T and Kaul SN. 2001Waste water treatment and management process depend on natural responses, like gravitational forces for sedimentation or on natural components, viz. biological organisms, and these are often supported by complex array of energy-intensive mechanical equipments. However, natural waste treatment systems are designed specifically to utilize natural resources to the maximum possible degree while obtaining the intended waste water treatment or management goal. These systems cost less to build and to operate, and require less energy than mechanical treatment alternatives. Natural systems typically include pumps and piping for waste water conveyance and do not depend exclusively on external energy sources to maintain the major treatment responses. An attempt has been made in this paper to address the various natural waste treatment systems including aquatic system, stabilization ponds, water hyacinth, etc. which are explored for renovation of waste water along with the detailed functioning, performances anticipated and achieved, and the design considerations.
(8 figures, 10 tables, 93 references)
Journal of Indian Association for Environmental Management28(3):152–179
National Environmental Engineering Research Institute,
Nehru Marg, Nagpur- 440 020, India

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[170]Removal of colour and turbidity in pulp and paper mill effluents using polyelectrolytes
Rohella RS, Choudhury S, Manthan M, Murty JS. 2001The pollutants in the pulp and paper mill effluents are mostly organic in nature and contain lignin and its derivatives in addition to other colour imparting phenolic and resinous compounds. Upon discharge, these effluents are very harmful to agricultural crops, aquatic life and human beings. Remedial measures are required to decolourize the pulp and paper mill effluents while simultaneously bringing down the level of other pollutants within the permissible limits for their safe disposal. The present study was undertaken for removal of the colour, turbidity, and COD from pulp and paper mill effluents using polyelectrolytes for pollution control and its safe disposal. Based on the pH of effluent and nature of colour imparting substance, suitable polyelectrolytes have been selected and used. A novel method of treating the above effluent with 0.2 ml/litre of Rishlyte 80 litres for the removal of colour, turbidity, and COD has been found to be optimal and techno-economically viable when compared with the conventional method of treatment with alum.
(4 figures, 2 tables, 10 references)
Indian Journal of Environmental Health43(4):159–163
Regional Research Laboratory (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research) Bhubanewsar- 751 013,
Orissa, India

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[171]Impact of textile industry on groundwater quality of Sanganer, Jaipur
Kumar S, Kushwaha R, Sapra S, Gupta AB, Bhargava A. 2001Owing to high amount of chemicals (e.g. sulphuric acid and acetic acid), dyes (e.g. chrome and metal dyes), suspended solids, and toxic metals in the textile waste, there is a probability of groundwater contamination, which would have many adverse effects on the local inhabitants and the flora and fauna of the area including agriculture produce. The present study was taken up to asses the quality of groundwater in Sanganer in Rajasthan to get an indication of contamination due to disposal of dye industry waste water and indiscriminate use of fertilizers. This would serve as a base to evolve suitable waste management strategy for the area. Textile waste samples were collected and different methods like litrimatric analysis, UV absorption, Atomic adsorption, etc. were performed to measure pH, TDS (total dissolved solids), conductivity, hardness, alkalinity, trace metals etc. The detailed results indicated that a few parameters e.g. pH, ammonical nitrogen, phosphate, and a few trace metals (copper, lead, zinc) were within the acceptable range; whereas the exceedance of others over standards are alarming. The results also signify that hardness, alkalinity, fluoride, nitrate, chloride, sulphate, TDS, chromium, iron etc. are high and water has to be treated before it could be supplied to the consumer. The authors suggested that the need is to conduct regular water quality analysis to assess trends, identify various sources and sinks of pollution and establish cause-effect relationship between industrial pollution and groundwater quality in order to devise a suitable water/ waste management strategy.
(1 figure, 4 tables, 4 references)
Journal of Indian Water Works Association33(4):321–326
Department of Civil Engineering,
Malaviya Regional Engineering College, Jaipur, India

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[172]Aerosol scavenging: model application and sensitivity analysis in the Indian context
Pandey JS, Khan S, Joseph V, Kumar R. 2002Sulfate aerosols have been found to be the major contributors to precipitation acidity. Thus, in view of the long-term ecological repercussions they have on aquatic ecosystems and their acidity-potential, the present analysis focuses on a case study application of the layer-averaged aerosol-scavenging model for predicting values of the wet scavenging coefficient and sulfate concentrations in precipitation samples on the basis of the information available for Chennai, Delhi, Kolkata, and Mumbai cities. Through sensitivity analysis the scavenging coefficient has been found to be very strongly dependent on precipitation intensity. Comparison of model predictions has been done with the measured values for Chennai, Delhi, Kolkata, and Mumbai in India.
(4 figures, 1 table, 28 references)
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment74(2):105–116
National Environmental Engineering Research Institute,
Nagpur, India
<pandeyjis@hotmail.com>

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