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TERI Information Digest on Energy and Environment
Year : 2002, Volume : 1, Issue : 1
First page : ( 115) Last page : ( 117)
Print ISSN : 0972-6721.

Health effects

 


[153]Endemic fluorosis in Rajasthan
Choubisa SL, Choubisa L, and Choubisa DK. 2001Chronic fluoride (F) toxicity in the form of osteo-dental fluorosis was observed in both sexes of children and adults from ten villages viz., Bhavanpura, Dovada, Genhuwara, Gokulpura, Hathai, Kahela, Mandav, Nalwara, Pratappura and Samota located in the vicinity of alive F mines of Dungarpur district (Rajasthan) where F concentrations in drinking waters varied from 1.2-8.9 PPM. At 1.7 and 6.1 mean F concentrations, 70.6% and 100.0% of children (<18 years) and 68.0% and 100.0% adults, respectively, were found to be affected with dental fluorosis of varying grades. Not much sex difference was seen in prevalence of dental fluorosis. Both prevalence and severity of dental mottling were found to be increased with increasing of F concentrations, 7.4% and 37.7% adults (>21 years) were showing evidence of skeletal fluorosis, respectively. Although, skeletal fluorosis was also found in children with low prevalence (5.2%) but a high F concentration (4.8 PPM). The prevalence of skeletal fluorosis was relatively higher in males and increased with higher F level and age. Deformities such as crippling, kyphosis, invalidism and genu-varum were observed frequently in higher age group subjects (>48 years) at a F concentration of 3.3 PPM. None of the fluorotic individuals revealed evidence of genu-valgum syndrome and goitre (thyroidism). Radiological findings of other deformities in fluorotic subjects were also found. The distribution of F and endemic fluorosis in different districts of Rajasthan state have also been reviewed.
(12 figures, 5 tables, 44 references)
Indian Journal of Environmental Health43(4):177–189
PG Department of Zoology,
S B P Government College, M LSukhadia University and General Hospital, Dungarpur-314 001, Rajasthan, India

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[154]Lead poisoning in Indian silver refiners
Tandon SK, Chatterjee M, Bhargava A, Shukla V, Bihari V. 2001The refining of silver from old silver ornaments, articles and jeweller's waste by smelting these with lead scraps for fabrication of new jewellery is an important small scale industry in India. The present survey and clinical investigations have shown that 31 out of 50 silver refiners with a mean blood lead level of 32.84 ± 1.78 Fg/dl (range 20.3-64.9), decrease in blood ALAD (8-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase) activity and thiamine (as pyruvate) level and an enhanced urinary excretion of ALA as compared to control, were suffering from lead poisoning. Most of these workers have shown anaemia, abdominal colic, blue lining of gum and muscular wasting indicative of lead toxicity. Twenty-four workers with relatively high blood lead levels were equally divided into two groups and given either vitamin B1 (75 mg, once a day) or vitamin C (250 mg, twice a day) for one month. The treatment with both the vitamins significantly lowered the blood lead levels and reduced blood thiamine and copper deficiency. In addition, vitamin C was also effective in reversing the inhibition of blood ALAD activity while the effect of vitamin B1 on its activity was marginal. The daily intake of vitamin B1 and vitamin C may prevent the accumulation of lead and reduce its toxic effects particularly in those regularly exposed to lead.
(3 tables, 25 references)
The Science of the Total Environment281(1–3):177–182
Industrial Toxicology Research Centre,
Chemical Toxicology, P O Box 80 M G Marg, Lucknow-226 001, India

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[155]Effects of radiation on coal mine environment — a critical review
Singh AK, Varma NK, Sahay N, Ahmad I. 2001Due to mass-scale industrialization, world's environment is being polluted every day endangering the existence of living beings on the earth. Attempts are being made to make air, water and atmosphere clean and to prevent likely hazards arising out of various industrial activities and the radiation from natural sources. Coal miners have small occupational radiation hazards which arise from naturally occurring radioactive substance(s) underground. The predominant source of natural radiation present in coal mines is the Radon gas. This paper describes the origin of Radon and its radiological hazards. An attempt has been made to review the status of the problem likely to be caused by different radioactive elements present in Indian coal, coal ash and allied coal-based industries. The Radon daughter concentrations in coal mines have been maintained at levels below those requiring regular action. As a result, the dose exposure of all mine workers has been kept as low as reasonably practicable. Controlling cumulative radiation exposure of miners by limiting their occupancy time in high-risk areas and rotating them to the low-risk areas can be a useful practice. To estimate cumulative exposure of the miners to Radon daughters, the average concentration of Radon daughters in each working area of the mine, and the time spent by the miners in each working area have to be known from the mine records. Coal ash radioactivity is due to the radioactive components present in coal, in particular, Uranium, Thorium, and their derivatives. During the disposal of coal ash many radioactive elements (enriched in coal ash) enter into human bodies through air and food chain and will cause radiation hazard; the prominent effects are manifested as skin cancer, genetic damage and lung problems. The result shows that everyone survives to the exposure up to 250 rads, above this point survival begins to drop sharply and above a dose of 700 rads, everyone dies.
(4 figures, 5 tables, 12 references)
Journal of Institute of Engineers (Environmental Engineering Division)82(Sept):17–21
Central Mining Research Institute,
Dhanbad - 826 001, India

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[156]Indoor environment among brassware workers
Bihari V, Rastogi SK, Mathur N, Mahendra PN, Pangtey BS, Bharti RS. 2001A cross sectional study was conducted among 482 male subjects (mean age 31.9 years; mean exposure 17.5 years), exposed to a variety of pollutants in the form of metal fumes, fine metal dust, coal dust and smoke in brassware industries. The workers lived and worked in the same environment and hence the risk of health hazards to the workers is enhanced. The observations were compared with matched controls of 127, selected from ancillary services. Overall prevalence of respiratory morbidity among the exposed subjects was 55.6%. The polishers and engravers showed a significantly higher prevalence of LRTI (lower respiratory tract infection) than that noted among the controls, chronic bronchitis was prevalent among moulders while bronchial asthma was found to be more prevalent among welders as compared to controls. The prevalence of URTI (upper respiratory tract infection) and pulmonary tuberculosis were not significant. The observations of this study lead to the recommendations of periodic health surveillance and environmental monitoring in the brassware industries in order to alleviate the health problems.
(5 tables, 31 references)
Journal of Indian Association for Environmental Management28(3):206–212
Epidemiology Division,
Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, P B No.80, M G Marg, Lucknow - 226 006
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