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TERI Information Digest on Energy and Environment
Year : 2002, Volume : 1, Issue : 1
First page : ( 111) Last page : ( 115)
Print ISSN : 0972-6721.

Hazardous wastes

 


[143]Atmospheric dust loads and their elemental composition at a background site in India
Negi BS, Jha SK, Chavan SB, Sadasivan S, Goyal A, Sapru ML, Bhat CL. 2002In India, the study of atmospheric dust loads - SPM (suspended particulate matter) - has been carried out at various urban centres by many workers for the purpose of air pollution and health effects. Measurement of dust loads at locations situated far away from urban industrial areas is very rare. The data on atmospheric dust loads at these locations can be used as a reference for studying air pollution status in the urban areas and the elemental composition of the dust is useful to identify long range transport and pollution sources at these background locations. Air particulate samples collected during 1995/96 at a background site situated on the east coast of Thar Desert in Rajasthan, India were analysed for atmospheric dust loads and elemental composition. The values of SPM ranged from 9-97 μg/M3 with an average of 43 μg/M3 except a few episodic values, which were 3 to 5 times higher than the average during summer months. The results for elemental metal composition of the particulate samples showed that the concentrations of anthropogenic toxic trace elements viz. Br, Cr, Pb, Sb, Se and Zn are lower by a factor of 2-10 as compared to urban areas. The high enrichment factors for anthropogenic elements viz. Br, Pb, Sb and Zn show an input from coal/wood fuel burning and vehicular pollution at the sampling site. The depletion of Si in SPM samples shows long distance transport of dust to the sampling site.
(2 figures, 2 tables, 13 references)
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment73(1):1–6
Environmental Assessment Division and Nuclear Research Laboratory,
Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India

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[144]Toxicity assessment of textile dye contaminated effluents before and after the treatment
Doctor PB and Ghosh SK. 2001In the present investigation the toxicity of textile dye containing effluents was determined before and after their treatment using three currently available and widely used microbial test systems. Microtox™ system where Photobacterium phosphoreum was used as sensor organism, Bacillus cerus was not sensitive to all toxic compounds as found with dye containing effluents. EC50 values, MEC90 and growth zone inhibition test for the treated and untreated effluents have been worked out and it was observed that the treatment was effective. In case of EC50 values, the effluent was more toxic before treatment (30%) as against the treatment (41%) while MEC50values were 1H303 and 1H102 before and after treatment, respectively. Mercury (Hg502+) was also tested in all these three systems as a positive reference control and compared with the results obtained with textile effluents.
(1 table, 8 references)
Indian Journal of Environmental Protection21(5):431–433
National Institute of Occupational Health,
Meghani Nagar, Ahmedabad - 380 016, India

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[145]Trihalomethane formation potential and concentration changes during water treatment at Mumbai (India)
Thacker NP, Kaur P, and Rudra A. 2002The treated water at the outlet of treatment plants and representative service reservoirs of Mumbai city have been evaluated for trihalomethane formation potential in 1995/96. Chloroform, dichlorobromomethane, chlorodibromomethane and bromoform have been monitored during monsoon, winter and summer. The levels of chloroform are found above the regulated WHO guideline value of 200 μg/litre in final water during post-monsoon at Ghatkopar (226 μg/litre), Malbar (210.3μg/litre), and Tulsi (231.26 μg/litre).
(6 figures, 3 tables, 7 references)
Environment Monitoring and Assessment73(3):253–262
National Environment Engineering Research Institute,
Nehru Marg, Nagpur, India
<npthacker@yahoo.co.in>

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[146]Application of water hyacinth to assess cadmium pollution in Chennai city
Rama KV and Rajeswari S. 2001Environmental pollution due to cadmium compounds is increasing as a result of industrial activities. The present work is an attempt to employ water hyacinth as an index of cadmium pollution in various regions of Chennai city. Water, sludge, and water hyacinth plant samples collected from 20 sites in Chennai city were analysed for the cadmium content and the level of pollution in urban/industrial regions of the city was assessed. From water analysis it was observed that cadmium is not a major pollutant in all the three regions of Chennai city as the values lie below the lowest quantity determinable concentration of cadmium. From sludge analysis it was inferred that cadmium concentration was at high levels in Tiruvottriyur, Chetput, and Kotturpuram during the study period. Analysis of water hyacinth plant indicated high cadmium content in Ayanavaram, Egmore and Jafferkhanpet. Hence it was confirmed that these places had been affected by cadmium pollution during the study period. From the study it was inferred that in north and south Chennai accumulation pattern of cadmium evinced variation among the parts of the plant. In central and south Chennai, distribution of cadmium was similar among the places studied. In central Chennai, all the four places studied lie along the Cooum river belt and hence there was a remarkable coincidence in the distribution of cadmium as well as its accumulation in different parts of the plant. The studies also indicate that some remedial measures are necessary to save the city from cadmium pollution.
(1 figure, 4 tables, 15 references)
Indian Journal of Environmental Protection21(5):385–391
University of Madras,
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Guindy Campus, Chennai -600 025, India

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[147]Groundwater quality around a municipal solid waste dumpsite at Chennai
Aurangabadkar K, Swaminathan K, Sandhya S, Uma TS, Jothikumar N, Paramasivam R. 2001Groundwater monitoring was carried out around a municipal refuse dumpsite to assess the quality of groundwater. The samples were analysed for pH, conductivity, chloride, sulphates, hardness, COD (chemical oxygen demand), ammonia and metals. The study revealed that the quality of groundwater does not conform to the drinking water quality standards. Concentrations of iron and manganese were exceeding the permissible limits for drinking water. The surface runoff samples collected around the dumpsite showed high inorganic and organic pollution which could also be due to the present practice of discharge of sewage and other unregulated effluents from the nearby areas. Leachate of soil samples also showed higher concentrations of chromium, zinc, lead, iron and manganese.
(1 figure, 4 tables, 7 references)
Indian Journal of Environmental Protection21(4):323–327
National Environmental Engineering Research Institute,
Chennai Zonal Laboratory, CSIR Complex, Taramani, Chennai -600 113, India

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[148]Effect of discharge of municipal sewage on the quality of the river Mahanadi at Sambalpur
Nanda SN and Tiwari TN. 2001This paper presents a preliminary study of the effect of discharge of untreated municipal effluents from Sambalpur town on the water-quality of river Mahanadi. Water samples were collected from two sampling stations and analysed in the laboratory for the following 17 water quality parameters: pH, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, total coliform, faecal colif-orm, chloride sulphate, total dissolved solids, fluoride, nitrate-nitrogen, ammonical nitrogen, total suspended solids, total hardness, Ca-hardness, Mg-hardness, and alkalinity. The results show that the quality of water deteriorates significantly after the discharge of municipal effluents into the river Mahanadi. (4 figures, 2 tables, 10 references)
Indian Journal of Environmental Protection21(4):336–343
Orissa Pollution Control Board,
Regional Office, 1070, Hospital Road, Modipara, Sambalpur- 768 002, India

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[149]Environmental and health effects of rollers used in cotton roller ginning industries
Iyer GV, Singh G, and Saxena NC. 2001This paper discusses and realizes the hazards of chromium in cotton fibres, yarn, and air pollution problems during cotton ginning process in roller ginning industries. Most of the cotton ginning operations are done using roller gins. The rollers used are made of chrome composite leather-cladding fixed to an iron shaft which contains trivalent and hexavalent forms of chromium salts which are carcinogenic in nature. During the cotton ginning operation, this chromium is adsorbed into lint (about 143-300 mg/kg PPM [parts per million]) and gets contaminated such that the yarn and fabric also carry with them about 25 mg/kg (PPM) which according to eco-standards for yarn and fabric, should not be more than 0.1 mg/kg (PPM). The cotton seeds along with linter get contaminated with about 100-200 mg/kg (PPM) as total chromium. Gin and mill workers directly exposed to this chromium, are susceptible to health hazards. Air pollution studies are made to monitor the gin house air and the quantity of respirable and suspended particulate matter concentration is 300-4232 μg/m3 and chromium content is around 1994 mg/kg (PPM). The three pollutants, namely, cotton dust, chromium, and leather powder, under favourable conditions of sunlight (photo energy), humidity, temperature and air movement interact and produce chrome specific dust which is a serious pollutant due to synergistic interacting function.
(4 figures, 5 tables, 3 references)
Indian Journal of Environmental Protection21(6):499–507
Indian School of Mines,
Dhanbad - 826 004, India

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[150]Washing of waste plastics and characteristics of wash water
Chaudhuri B, Ghosh B, Datta BK, Bhattacharjee S. 2001Polymers and plastics are now being used tremendously the world over. However, these are not biodegradable and accumulate in the system causing pollution. Thereof the safe disposal of waste plastics has become a matter of concern for environmentalists and waste management experts. This paper deals with washing of waste plastics in the process of recycling them and also describes various characteristics of the wash water produced from the wash media in the process. The washing of waste plastics with different liquids such as water, sodium carbonate and sodium hydroxide solutions, and detergent solution was accomplished in an agitated unbaffled vessel. Sodium hydroxide and detergent solution have been found to be equally effective for the washing because maximum removal of dirt was achieved in a single wash. From a kinetic study of COD release as a function of agitation time, it was established that for the agitation system employed in the present work, a time of 30 minutes was adequate for washing of plastics. The COD of the wash water on standing reduced substantially due to settling of the suspended impurities. Lime treatment of the waste water reduced its COD to around 200 mg/litre or below, and this could be recycled back into the process of washing. Such washing would also improve the quality of the recycled granules produced in their units.
(1 figure, 3 tables, 5 references)
Journal of the Institute of Engineers (Environmental Engineering Division)82(Sept):27–30
Department of Chemical Engineering,
Calcutta University, Koltata - 700 009, India

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[151]A study on the distribution of organic matter and toxic metals in the sediments of river Cauvery at Tiruchirapalli
Jameel AA. 2001The present study aims at examining the river bed sediments for the distribution of organic matter and toxic heavy metals in the river Cauvery. Two sediment samples were collected at both the banks from six sampling stations. The samples were acid treated and the concentration of metals, like lead, copper, iron and chromium were recorded using atomic absorption spectropho-tometer. The total organic matter and physico-chemical parameters were analysed for all the samples. Most of the heavy metals precipitated and settled into the riverbed as carbonates, oxides and hydroxides. The pollutants deposited in association with very fine particles of silt and clay. The silt and clay act as adsorbents along with the organic matter.
(2 tables, 10 references)
Indian Journal of Environmental Protection21(4):302–304
Jamal Mohamed College,
Post-Graduate Studies and Research Department of Chemistry, Tiruchirapalli - 620 020, India

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[152]Distribution and hydrogeochemistry of fluoride in groundwater of Maharashtra
Badve RV and Pathak MD. 2001The fluoride content of groundwater in Maharashtra is influenced by geological formations. The factors that control the concentration of fluoride are the climate, presence of the mineral, and chemical composition of circulating water. This study summarizes the results of fluoride estimates of over 25 000 samples collected from groundwater sources (dugwells and borewells) in more than 10 000 villages in Maharashtra over a period of 20 years. Groundwater containing high concentrations of fluoride are observed in archaean rock formations and due to the presence of fluoride mineral, skeletal and dental fluorosis cases are observed in villages having this formation. In Basalt, the fluoride content in groundwater is generally within permissible limits. However, few cases of high fluoride groundwater in arid and semi-arid climate have been noticed. Water samples were collected from villages from open wells and bore wells and fluoride was estimated using SPADNS method. Thus, on the basis of investigations, people can be advised to use water have low fluoride content. The other methods to solve the excess fluoride problem is mixing of low and high fluoride waters, by using artificial recharge techniques such as, construction of percolation tank and, flooding of groundwater by mixing surface water. The study also suggests that since the number of villages surveyed so far is only 25% of the total number of villages in the state, considering the health hazards of fluoride, it is imperative to conduct surveys in every village and evaluate the fluoride concentration in all available drinking water sources.
(2 tables, 9 references)
Journal of Indian Association for Environmental Management28(3):192–195
Groundwater Surveys and Development Agency,
Pune

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