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TERI Information Digest on Energy and Environment
Year : 2002, Volume : 1, Issue : 1
First page : ( 107) Last page : ( 109)
Print ISSN : 0972-6721.

Industrial pollution

 


[134]Heavy metal pollution of river Yamuna in the industrially developing state of Haryana
Kaushik A, Jain S, Dawra J, Sahu R, Kaushik CP. 2001Heavy metal concentrations viz. Fe, Ni, Pb, Cd, Co, Zn in the river Yamuna flowing along the state of Haryana through Delhi have been reported selecting 16 stations covering the upstream and downstream stations for major industrial complexes of the state. The metal concentrations in the river were correlated with the potential anthropogenic sources. While Fe, Ni and Co concentrations exceeded the maximum permissible limits prescribed for drinking all along the river, the Cd concentrations crossed the acceptable standards in Delhi downstream. The Pb concentrations declined in the eutrophicated Delhi downstream while Zn concentrations remained within desirable limits throughout. Peak concentrations were recorded in Delhi downstream for Fe, and at Sonepat-Gohana downstream for Ni, Co, and Zn, which matched with the type of industrial inputs viz. ironworks and the electroplating, galvanizing and cycle industries, respectively. The status of heavy metal pollution of the river has been discussed with respect to possible adverse impacts on human health and aquatic life. Lead concentrations in the river remained higher than the maximum permissible limits in the river right from its origin (Y-1) to Palla (Y-10) with values of 0.12-0.15 mg/litre. Lead poisoning can cause lassitude, abdominal disorders, anaemia, mental retardation and hypertension in human beings. Cadmium showed very little fluctuations in its concentrations along the whole route of the river, with values ranging from 0.01 -0.013 mg/litre in upper segment. The river Yamuna shows more Cd pollution in Delhi segment and Delhi downstream. The increased concentration of Cd in Delhi downstream seems to be due to the industrial wastes coming from Delhi. Cadmium shows acute toxicity to fishes and to human beings as well. Cobalt concentrations in Yamuna were high in Delhi upstream and decreased downstream. The present study reveals that the Co concentration in upper segment of the river is higher than that reported for other Indian rivers, which may cause polycythemia, cardiomyopathy, neurologic abnormalities and goitre in human beings. Zinc, which is an essential trace metal varied in concentration from 0.2 to 0.5 mg/litre in the upper segment of Yamuna whereas at the Y-8 station which is just downstream of the electroplating and galvanising works in the Industrial Area-III showed a high Zn concentrations of 0.8 mg/ litre. Various aquatic plants, fishes and even human beings are affected by zinc toxicity at higher concentrations. The study also shows that there is sharp increase in the concentration of Fe by orders, of ten in Delhi downstreams, viz. Okhla and Dadasiya. Ni concentrations show a peak at Bairabakipur and Palla, which are the downstream stations of Industrial Area III with electroplating and cycle manufacturing industries. Pollution load of Ni is reported to be 15 kg/day from Sonepat, which is two to three times higher than that of other industrial areas. Pb, Co and Zn concentration, on the other hand, decline in Delhi downstream. Inter-correlation of various metals present in the river water indicate strong positive correlation of Co with Ni, Pb, and Zn and a strong negative correlation with Fe and Cd. Significant positive correlation between Zn and Ni and significant negative correlation between Zn-Cd and Ni-Cd were also indicated. There is a need to undertake more systematic studies to understand the interactions of these heavy metals with various other parameters, which could affect their solubilities in the presence of other metal ions, thus influencing their inter-correlations.
(3 tables, 18 references)
Indian Journal of Environmental Health43(4):164–168
Department of Environment Science and Engineering,
G.J. University, Hisar-125 001, Haryana, India

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[135]Seasonal variation in bacterial flora of the waste water and soil in the vicinity of industrial area
Malik A and Ahmad M. 2002Environmental pollution is one of the major problems being faced today due to extensive industrialization. Heavy metals are the most important contaminants, present in abundance, in waste water, and they are toxic. Heavy metal contents of sewage in the industrial estate of Aligarh in Uttar Pradesh have been determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The analysis of samples collected from six different locations revealed significantly high levels of Fe, Zn, Cu, Cr, and Ni. Certain bacteriological (total bacterial count, total coliform, faecal coliform, and faecal streptococci) parameters of domestic and industrial sewage as well as soils were monitored from March 1990 to January 1993. Total bacterial count, total coliform, faecal coliform and faecal streptococci were found to be lowest in all the samples of industrial waste water compared to those in domestic sewage and soil systems. The soil, however, contained highest total culturable bacterial population. In view of the common practice of the application of sewage to agricultural land in the neighbouring area, the discharge of industrial waste water without proper treatment into public sewers should be strictly prohibited. The findings suggest that the variation in the bacterial population to a large extent is determined by physicochemical status of the system vis-à-vis the tolerance of the population against the undesirable agents. Moreover, decline in bacterial flora should be viewed in the overall ecological status of the system, especially the chemical pollutants deleterious to the growth and survival of microorganisms might have remarkable contribution towards this phenomenon, in the receiving system adjacent to the industrial area.
(3 figures, 2 tables, 13 references)
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment73(3):263–273
Department of Agricultural Microbiology Faculty of Agricultural Sciences,
Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh - 202 002, India

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[136]A study of water quality of the rivers of Ranchi district
Roy Y and Kumar RA. 2001The present study deals with the assessment of the quality of waters of surrounding rivers of Ranchi district. The water quality parameters in 3 rivers, namely, Kanke Dam, Harmu river, and Suvarnarekha river surrounding Ranchi have been studied to assess the quality and suitability of water for domestic, industrial and agricultural needs and to identify the polluted zones. The results clearly indicate that the waters of Harmu river is heavily polluted by organic substances, and inorganic substances, such as iron and calcium. Hence it is suggested to exercise all the necessary precautions before the waters are used for public distribution system, or irrigation, otherwise it may reflect in many public health problems and cultivation problems.
(1 figure, 3 tables)
Indian Journal of Environmental Protection21(5):398–402
J N College,
Department of Chemistry, Ranchi -834 004, India

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[137]Water quality index for the ground water around a phosphatic fertilizer plant
Pradhan SK, Patnaik D, and Rout SP. 2001Water pollution is increasing due to rapid urbanization, industrial growth and wide sphere of human activities. The present paper discusses the WQI (water quality index) parameters which could be a measure of groundwater quality. The study was conducted in the eastern part of Orissa for 12 selected water quality parameters, and the data analysed for both physical and chemical characteristics of water. The 10 ground water samples were collected in three seasons over a period of one year, from a phosphatic fertilizer plant. The results indicated that the WQI can be a very useful and efficient tool for communicating the information on the overall quality of water. From the study results, it can be concluded that the groundwater in and around the fertilizer plant and port complex is suitable for drinking.
(4 tables, 5 references)
Indian Journal of Environmental Protection21(4):355–358
Utkal University,
Department of Chemistry, Vani Vihar, Bhubaneswar- 751 004, India

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