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TERI Information Digest on Energy and Environment
Year : 2002, Volume : 1, Issue : 1
First page : ( 105) Last page : ( 105)
Print ISSN : 0972-6721.

Fossil fuels and environment

 


[130]Leaching study of trace elements from bottom ashes: a case study of Chandrapura Thermal Power Station
Kumar S. 2001Coal is the major source of energy in India since India has vast reserves of thermal power grade coal. Indian coals contain high ash coupled with low calorific value and consequently results in huge amount of bottom ash. This ash accumulates in on site piles and ponds thereby resulting in serious environmental problems particularly trace elements contamination of ground and surface waters. This study envisages the environmental assessment of bottom ash from Chandrapura Thermal Power Station. Trace elements were observed within the regulatory limits. Many of the trace elements evaluated, namely Cr, Ni, Co, Se, Al, As, B, Ba, Sb, Hg were observed at below detection limits of AAS (atomic absorption spectroscopy). Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Pb, Cd and other dissolved ions leached at significant concentration levels while Cu and Zn leached normally at low concentration levels. This study suggests low cost high volume utilization of bottom ash as fill material for reclaiming surrounding abandoned mined out areas in an environmentally acceptable manner.
(2 tables)
Indian Journal of Environmental Protection21(6):543–545
Damodar Valley Corporation,
Chandrapura Thermal Power Station, Chandrapura - 825 303, India

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[131]Impact assessment of a coal washery project on socio-economic environment: an Indian case study
Ghose MK and Giradhari L. All industrial developments including coal washery projects are accompanied by changes in socio-economic factors in the project area and surrounding regions. To evaluate the impact of a coal washery project, an investigation was carried out in the Patherdih coal washery of BCCL (Bharat Coking Coal Ltd). The existing socio-economic environmental scenario of the study area has been discussed and the methodology adopted has been described. Socio-economic parameters are analysed on the basis of census reports and a detailed household questionnaire. The survey was carried out in core and buffer zones and the results have been discussed on the basis of socio-economic determinants. The number of households shifted due to the implementation of the project, compensation provided to project affected people, facilities provided by the project authority for the improvement of the status of the employees and local people and the overall impact on the socio-economic environment have been discussed. The coal washery project appears to have brought significant socio-economic development to the area. It has involved the immigration of industrial workers in the area and opened avenues for different types of employment.
(1 figure, 3 tables, 16 references)
Journal of Environmental Studies and Policy4(1):35–44
Centre of Mining Environment,
Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad - 826 004, India

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[132]Trace metal distribution in water bodies around Lakwa oil field, Assam — a case study
Baruah J, Kotoky P, Baruah NK, Borah GC. 2001The north-eastern region of India occupies a prominent position in the history of natural resource and it contributes a huge amount towards the growth of national economy. The spillage of oil and untreated/less treated/formation/drilling water from various oil fields in Assam, in Sibsagar district and Lakwa oil field, is a matter of great concern for the inhabitants, vegetation and agricultural crops. The basic objectives undertaken for the present investigation were: (1) to assess the heavy metal content in ponds and stagnated water bodies around the oil installations, (2) to establish relationship with the metal concentration in water with respect to space and time, (3) to evaluate their probable association within the system under study. A preliminary survey of the area was undertaken to have a clear idea about the proposed area of study. During the survey a few flowing oil wells and the 8 GGSs (group gathering stations) were visited. It was observed during the survey that seepage/leakage of oil from the flowing wells, from conducting pipelines to different GGS, and leakage/spillage of waste materials from GGSs, cause a significant concern to the existing ecosystem of the area. After preliminary analysis and evaluation, the authors proposed to undertake a detailed study. The variation of metal concentration in water samples collected are studied to evaluate the environmental impact on the water systems by the active exploration and exploration activities. The concentration of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Co, Pb) although found within the recommended values, an increase of values over the background level is significant. The source of elevated level of these metal contents is most likely to be the oil field brines and oil contaminated waste water. The high value of Ca, Mg, Na and K may be attributed as the anthropogenic introduction into the system by the ongoing industrial development. However, the significant dilution/dispersion of metal contents below their tolerance limits during the monsoon period helps to create a environment friendly situation. A cost effective disposal system with proper environmental management is, therefore, needed as the surface water is the major source for the entire life-forms in the area.
(3 figures, 4 tables, 10 references)
Indian Journal of Environmental Protection21(4):328–335
Regional Research Laboratory,
Geoscience Division, Jorhat- 785 006, India

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[133]Evaluation of adulterated petro-fuels
Biswas D and Ray R. 2001Similar to crude oil and other fractions derived from petroleum, evaluation of gasoline, kerosene and diesel is also important to find out their suitability in their fields of application. The present survey aims to approach systematically towards the fuel mixture at different proportions as well as on performance and on environmental pollution. The petro-fuels were procured from the local market and standard tests were performed thereafter to evaluate the properties of the pure and of the adulterated samples of the following three categories: (1) gasoline + kerosene, (2) gasoline + diesel, and (3) kerosene + diesel. In each case, properties with respect to major component are tested with different blends containing 10% to 50% by volume of major components. The results for category (1) mixture leads to the conclusion that engine performance with respect to octane number is not affected due to adulteration up to 50% volume with kerosene, however, it affects seriously with respect to volatility. Hence, such adulteration may lead to environmental pollution due to incomplete combustion of fuel. The result of category (2) sample shows that adulteration effect on the properties of kerosene is not too severe, and can be used within the range studied. However, decrease in IBP (initial boiling point) may cause evaporation losses, thus polluting the atmosphere. Similar results are found for other cases also. The paper concluded that the traders of adulterated fuel should think not only the engine performance but also pollution hazards and other economic benefits. The users can avoid the use of adulterated fuels, which may cause damage to engine parts or pollute the atmosphere.
(3 figures, 3 tables, 4 references)
Indian Chemical Engineer43(4):314–317
Department of Chemical Technology,
University of Calcutta, Kolkata - 700 009, India

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