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TERI Information Digest on Energy and Environment
Year : 2002, Volume : 1, Issue : 1
First page : ( 60) Last page : ( 62)
Print ISSN : 0972-6721.

From standards, patents, newsletters, government documents and notifications, annual reports, etc.


Manufacturing method of photovoltaic device
A manufacturing method of a photovoltaic device comprising a plurality of unit cells including a first electrode of zinc oxide, a photovoltaic conversion layer, and a second electrode on a surface of a substrate includes a process for forming a zinc oxide film on the surface of the substrate, a process for eliminating a predetermined part of the zinc oxide film by laser beam irradiation and dividing the zinc oxide film into a plurality of the first electrodes, and a process for etching the surface of the substrate including the plurality of the first electrodes.
Patent number US 6,348,362
Invented by Manabu Sasaki (Osaka, Japan); Katsunobu Sayama(Katano, Japan); and Eiji Maruyam (Katano, Japan)
Filed by M/s Sanyo Electric Co. Ltd (Osaka-fu, Japan) on 28 November 2000
Granted on 19 February 2002


Security system for alternative energy supplies
Use of prepayment mechanisms for alternative energy supply systems and monitoring connected devices. An energy supply system is, for instance, an alternative energy source, such as a photovoltaic array and an overriding prepayment mechanism adapted to control the supply of use able energy (electricity) to a point of use in accordance with predetermined prepayment criteria. The photovoltaic array incorporates, integral therewith, an energy source controller that is in communication with a corresponding controller forming part of the prepayment mechanism.
Solar Energy71(6): 416 (2001)
Patent number US 6,191,501
Invented by Hermanus A Bos
Filed by Merlin Gerin S.A. (Proprietary) Limited (Gauteng, ZA) on 13 August 1999
Granted on 20 February 2001


Alternative Fuel
A spark ignition motor fuel composition consisting essentially of: a hydrocarbon component containing one or more hydrocarbons selected from five to eight carbon atoms straight-chained or branched alkanes, wherein the hydrocarbon component has a minimum antiknock index of 65 as measured by ASTM D-2699 and D-2700 and a maximum DVPE (dry vapor pressure equivalent) of 15 psi (one atmosphere [atm.]) as measured by ASTM D-5191; a fuel grade alcohol; and a co-solvent for the hydrocarbon component and the fuel grade alcohol, wherein the hydrocarbon component, the fuel grade alcohol and the co-solvent are present in amounts selected to provide a motor fuel with a minimum anti-knock index of 87 as measured by ASTM D-2699 and D-2700, and a maximum DVPE of 15 psi (1 atm.) as measured by ASTM D-5191, and wherein the fuel composition is essentially free of olefins, aromatics, and sulfur. A method for lowering the vapor pressure of a hydrocarbon-alcohol blend by adding a co-solvent for the hydrocarbon and the alcohol to the blend is also disclosed.
Patent number US 6,309,430
Invented and filed by Stephen F Paul (Princeton, New Jersey) on 3 May 1999
Granted on 30 October 2001



Test method for evaluation of automotive engine oils in the sequence VIII spark-ignition engine (CLR oil test engine)
The scope of the standard includes the following:
  • This test method is used to evaluate automotive engine oils (SAE grades 5W, 10W, 20, 30, 40, and 50, and multiviscosity grades) intended for use in spark-ignition gasoline engines. The test proce dure is conducted using a carbureted, spark-ignition CLR (Coop erative Lubrication Research) oil test engine (also referred to as the Sequence VIII test engine in this test method) run on unleaded fuel. An oil is evaluated for its ability to protect the engine and the oil from deterioration under high-temperature and severe service condi tions. The test method can also be used to evaluate the viscosity stability of multiviscosity-graded oils.

  • Correlation of test results with those obtained in automotive service has not been established. Furthermore, the results obtained in this test are not necessarily indicative of results that will be obtained in a full-scale automotive spark-ignition or compression-ignition en gine, or in an engine operated under conditions different from those of the test. The test can be used to compare one oil with another.

  • The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard, except for (1) volume which is given in the metric, but non-SI, litre, (2) certain tube measurements which are given in the inch-pound unit, (3) cylinder bore and stroke in both SI and inch-pound units (the inch-pound being the standard) and (4) piston displacement given in metric (non-SI) and inch-pound unit (the inch-pound being the standard). In respect to (3) and, (4) the inch-pound units are shown first and the SI units in parenthesis.

  • This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

ASTM International (formerly American Society for Testing and Materials), West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania, USA Standard No. D6709-01 (2001)


Government notification/policy

Stringent cost accounting rules for power companies
The Department of Company Affairs, Government of India, has issued a notification promulgating the Cost Accounting Records (Electricity Industry) Rules, 2001 with immediate effect. The rules promulgated under Sub-section 1 of Section 642, read with Clause (d) of Sub-section 1 of Section 209 of the Companies Act, 1956, shall apply to companies engaged in generation of electricity from thermal power, gas turbines, hydroelectric power, atomic power, wind power, and any other sources of energy. Besides, these rules will apply to transmission and bulk supply of electricity, distribution, and retail supply of power.

However, the rules will exempt companies not exceeding the limits as specified for a small-scale industrial undertaking under the provisions of Industries (Development and Regulation) Act, 1951 and also the companies whose aggregate value of the turnover from sale or supply of products of activities during the financial year does not exceed Rs 100 million. The rules provide for stringent norms for maintenance of records and penalty for violation of such norms. The penalty for contravention of these rules under Section 209 of the Companies Act is fine, which may extend to Rs 5000 and if it continues for the subsequent years then with a fine, which may extend to Rs 500 for every day after the first day during which such contravention continues.
The rules cover materials, salaries and wages, service department expenses, utilities, workshops or repairs and maintenance or tool rooms, fixed assets and depreciation, leasing charges, other overheads, royalty or technical know-how fee, research and development expenses, interest, expenses or incentives on exports, cost statements, production records, reconciliation of cost and financial accounts, adjustment of cost variances, statistical records, captive consumption, pollution control, human resource development, and related party transactions.
The rules also provide for various pro forma for maintaining of records and filing of annual returns before the Registrar of Companies. These pro forma will cover quantitative information, cost information, statement showing procurement of conventional and non-conventional fuel, cost of generation of power, cost of transmission, consumer service and billing, allocation, and appointment.
All items of income and expenses in these pro forma are required to be reconciled with the financial accounts for the relevant period or year.
Energy Times24(25): 1 and 4 (2002)


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