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TERI Information Digest on Energy and Environment
Year : 2002, Volume : 1, Issue : 1
First page : ( 39) Last page : ( 47)
Print ISSN : 0972-6721.

Energy planning and policy

 


[83]Photovoltaic residential electrification: a case study on solar battery charging stations in Brazil
dos Santos RR and Zilles R. 2001SBCSs (solar battery charging stations) were initially conceived to bring the price per household of electrification within the capacity to pay of the rural poor, and to foster the establishment of community businesses supplying the modest electricity demands of end-users far from the grid in an entrepreneur-based electrification model. The great foreseen advantages of SBCS were security of payment for the electricity service and operation under much higher system final yields and capacity factors. However, an analysis of the annual costs of SBCS indicates that they are in reality a more expensive alternative than SHSs (solar home systems) owing to the shorter lifetime of batteries. Moreover, battery transport for recharging and lower energy capacity, among other drawbacks, make users opt for the added convenience of a SHS. A financial analysis of a general case study is presented, with SBCS and SHS designed to offer equal electricity services. The local field experience is that after one and a half years SBCSs were replaced by SHSs.
(5 figures, 4 tables, 8 references)
Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications9(6):445–453
Laboratory of Photovoltaic systems,
Instituto de Eletrotecnica e Energia, University of Sao Paulo, A v .Prof Luciano Gualberto 1289, 05508–900 Sao Paulo, Brazil
<rosana2@uol.com.br>

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[84]Feasibility of solar lighting system in Western Maharashtra
Malaviya JN. 2001The feasibility of using of SLS (solar lighting system) in the villages of Maharashtra has been studied in this paper. A cluster of economically sound villages where the masses have capacity to invest has been chosen for about 5% of the population. It finds prevalence in commercial establishments like STD (subscriber trunk dialling) booths, hotels, and hospitals besides rich farmers in houses. The demand for SLS will grow by an average of 5% every year. With the wait and watch policy the SLS will gain popularity in 5 years and it is expected that at least 25% of population will use SLS. RESCOHP (Renewable Energy Service Company) of Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Ltd will avail the IREDA soft loan facility in order to make the project financially viable.
(2 tables)
IREDANews12(4):51–53
Malaviya Energy Consultancy,
B24 Ujwal Park, NIBM Road, Kondwa, Pune, India
<malaviya@vsnl.com>

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[85]Cogeneration projects: the economics behind and the reality that awaits investors
Roy GCD. 2001So far, bagasse-based cogeneration projects have been encouraged by the MNES (Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Sources) and some international support for improving the economics of sugar operation. But this approach is now providing to be counter productive. Some recent developments like dishonoring of signed PPAs (power purchase agreements), reduction of tariff rates, increasing wheeling charges in some states indicate that cogeneration as per the present model is no longer welcome by the utilities. Cogenerators are being negatively discriminated against the IPPs (independent power producers) based on costlier fuel options. This paper suggests that the economics of bagasse based cogeneration projects can be revived by policy review encouraging the development of cogeneration projects through IPP route and deploying environmentally benign options for mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions.
(3 figures, 5 tables)
Cooperative Sugar33(2):151–154
DCM Shriram Consolidated Ltd,
New Delhi, India

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[86]The role of exergy in energy policy making
Dincer I. 2001This paper deals with the utilization of exergy as an efficient tool for energy policy-making applications since exergy is measure of quantity and quality of the energy sources unlike energy, which is only about the quantity. In addition, energy and exergy concepts are evaluated for various actual processes, and the role of exergy is discussed for energy and environment policy-making activities from several key perspectives such as, quality, energy conservation, environment, economy, and sustainable development. The results of this study exhibit that the potential usefulness of exergy in addressing and solving environmental problems as well as attaining sustainable development is crucial.
(4 figures, 4 tables, 37 references)
Energy Policy30(2):137–149
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Box 127, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia
<idincer@kfupm.edu.sa>

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[87]National patterns of research output and priorities in renewable energy
Uzun A. 2001This paper attempts to compare the research output and priorities of 25 major countries in renewable energy research. The main objective is to assess the research priorities of the major countries in frontier area subjects of renewable energy using some bibliometric measures based on renewable energy literature. Subjects of high activity and subjects of low activity are identified for two time periods (1996/97 and 1998/99). The findings show that the output of publications including articles, reviews, letters, notes, editorials, and book reviews (in India, Greece and Belgium) declined between 1996/97 and 1998/99. All measures indicated that in the US all subjects of renewable energy received more or less the same priority. The rest of the countries had differentiated high- or low-priority profiles in different subjects. Among the main research subjects of renewable energy, only photovoltaic technology had a fairly homogenous profile for all countries.
(6 tables, 9 references)
Energy Policy30(2):131–136
Department of Physics,
Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara, Turkey
<azun@metu.edu.tr>

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[88]Energy policy modelling: agenda for developing countries
Pandey R. 2002Although developed country energy policy models are useful for addressing certain issues relating to operational improvement, impact of technology mix, and impact of certain aspects of privatization and competition within a modern industry in a developing country, they are inadequate for analysing a large number of policy concerns of developing countries. Policy priorities like equity of distribution and sustainability of resource use, dynamics of transition of populations from traditional to modern markets, barriers to such transition and to technological diffusion, evaluation of decentralized energy options together with centralized options, ongoing radical changes in market structure and policy regime in energy industries, and long-term uncertainties in domestic policy regimes, are characteristics specific to most developing economies. These characteristics need to be modelled in order to make energy model useful for policy analysis in developing countries. These are research challenges for developing country modellers. It is important for policymakers in developing countries to consider results and prescriptions of multiple models to assess robustness of their decisions.
(1 table, 54 references)
Energy Policy30(2):97–106
Indian Institute of Management,
Prabandh Nagar, Off Sitapur Road, Lucknow -226 013, India
<rahulp@iiml.ac.in>

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[89]Electricity consumption and economic growth in India
Ghosh S. 2002Electricity is the most flexible form of energy that constitutes one of the vital infrastructural inputs in socio-economic development. This paper investigates empirically the existence and direction of causal relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth in India. Such knowledge can play a crucial role from the policy formulation point of view. Granger causality existing between electricity consumption and economic growth in India using annual data covering the period 1950/51 to 1996/97 has been investigated. This study finds the absence of long-run equilibrium relationship among the variables but the results have established the existence of Granger causality running from economic growth to electricity consumption without any feedback effect. The electricity conservation policies can be initiated without deteriorating economic side effects.
(1 figure, 3 tables, 16 references)
Energy Policy30(2):125–129
Energy Division,
Confederation of Indian Industry, Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, New Delhi- 110 003, India
<sajal.ghosh@ciionline.org>

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[90]Costs of atmospheric fluidized-bed combustor for electric power generation
Scherr FC and Fuller JA. 2002AFBC (atmospheric fluidized-bed combustor) is the prevalent technology in boiler design for new power plants. This paper examines the effect of fuel type (scrap coal or standard grade coal), plant size, and plant completion date on fuel costs, operating costs, capital costs, and levelized total costs per unit of electrical output. AFBC plants burning scrap are found to be cheaper in fuel per unit output, despite the lower heat content of scrap. It was also found that larger AFBC plants are cheaper to run. The paper concludes that the results regarding the level of costs and how these costs vary with fuel type, plant size, and plant completion date need to be contrasted with those from conceptual computer models of AFBC costs and with AFBC demonstration projects. They also need to be compared to costs of other technologies, such as combined cycle gas-fired plants. The effects of fuel type on permit trading values need to be examined.
(5 tables, 24 references)
The Energy Journal23(1):117–132
College of Business and Economics,
West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506–6025, US
<ula01233@wvnvm.wvnet.edu>

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[91]Rural electrification programme with solar energy in remote region — a case in an island
Chakrabarti S and Chakrabarti S. 2002The conventional sources of power generation are unattractive in comparison to the SPV (solar photovoltaic) systems on account of their difficulty in supply to rural areas, exhaustible nature and environmental effects. This paper presents a case study, conducted in an island called Sagar Dweep in West Bengal, India, to support the view. A rural electrification programme with solar energy was carried out in Sagar Dweep. The study shows that within a short span of four years, there have been noticeable improvements and significant impacts on education, trade, commerce, entertainment, and health as a result of supply of power from SPV power plants. Productivity level of some agricultural activities as well as women's participation in different economic activities (at night), other than household work, have shown definite signs of betterment. The SPV system is found to be superior to conventional systems considering its environmental effects and easy accessibility despite the high cost of its production.
(11 tables, 8 references)
Energy Policy30(1):33–42
Economic Research Unit,
Indian Statistical Institute, 203 Barrackpore Trunk Road, Kolkata - 700 035, India
<snigdha@isical.ac.in>

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[92]A framework for social costing and institutional/market reform in the Chinese energy sector
Jaccard M and Yushi M. 2001China faces many challenges as it transforms its economy and institutions while sustaining a rapid rate of economic growth. A central challenge is the negative environmental and social impacts that can accompany energy development and use. Social costing encompasses the various ways in which public policymakers try to incorporate social and environmental factors into the operation of the market and into planning activities. This involves estimating the extent to which the market fails to meet certain objectives, such as environmental protection and social development, and then exploring ways of modifying market conditions and some planning functions so that these are better taken into account. This may involve simple changes in taxes and subsidies, in order to correct prices to reflect social costs. But depending on the sector of the economy, governments may also opt for market-oriented regulatory tools. One example is cap and tradable permits system for emission control, another example is the renewable portfolio standard for technology specification in electricity generation. The concern for social costing can also motivate institutional reforms in monopoly and planned sectors of the economy. Examples are the application of integrated resource planning by monopoly utilities and community energy planning by municipal governments. While not all applications of social costing will apply to China today, or perhaps even in the future, there are many aspects that the Chinese government could examine with a view to adapting these to meet China's unique conditions and aspirations.
(3 figures, 9 references)
Energy for Sustainable Development5(4):100–110
School of Resource and Environment Management,
Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, British Columbia, V5A 1S6, Canada
<jaccard@sfu.ca>

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[93]Energy profiles of rural domestic sector in six unelectrified villages of Jorhat district in Assam
Sarmah R, Bora MC, and Bhattacharjee DJ. 2002A comparative analysis of the household energy consumption patterns and available biomass energy in six unelectrified villages of Jorhat district in Assam is presented in this paper. The study reveals that the total energy consumed for domestic activities ranges from 7.503-12.692 GJ/capita/year. Major findings in the domestic sector are (1) fuel wood is preferred for domestic energy consumption; (2) easy availability encourages excessive consumption; (3) 21.5%-42% more energy is consumed in winter than in summer to meet cooking, water heating, and space heating needs; (4) rice residues and dung are present in abundance but go waste owing to the easy availability of fuel wood; and (5) commercial fuel (kerosene) is the only alternative for domestic lighting. The large-scale consumption of fuelwood in all of the villages and the wastage of biomass indicate a heavy loss of energy in rural areas. There is an urgent need to strengthen briquetting technology, improve stoves, and introduce biogas programmes for efficient use of energy sources in rural north-east India.
Energy27(1):17–24
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Jorhat Engineering College, Jorhat - 785 001, Assam, India

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[94]Improved cook-stoves in rural India: how improved are they? A critique of the perceived benefits from the National Programme on Improved Chulhas (NPIC)
Kishore VVN and Ramana PV. 2002The NPIC was started by the MNES (Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Sources), Government of India, in 1985 to achieve the twin objectives of fuelwood conservation and smoke reduction in kitchens. MNES has claimed that NPIC has overseen the installation of 28 million improved cook-stoves, saving nearly 20 million tonne of firewood per year. These achievements, though seemingly impressive, are not realistic as they are based on certain assumptions, particularly regarding the life expectancy of stoves. This paper examines the various assumptions made in such calculations and tries to arrive at some realistic numbers regarding fuelwood savings, which can be used to evolve a policy for refining the NPIC further. This paper concludes that an R,D&D (research, development and demonstration) programme on long-life improved chulhas can certainly enhance the utility of NPIC. Such stoves will most likely be much heavier and more costly as materials such as castable fireclay or cast iron may have to be used and the material thickness will also be greater. Thus, other uncertainties such as user acceptance, variable field performance, and lacunae in implementation processes remaining the same, the one factor which can make significant difference is the higher operating life of the improved stove. It is also known that energy efficiency depends on the correct integration of fuel stove and pots at the design stage itself, hence special emphasis will have to be placed in engineering the design of the fuel-stove-pot system in future implementation of NPIC.
(3 figures, 4 tables, 13 references)
Energy27(1):47–63
TERI,
Darbari Seth Block, Habitat Place, Lodhi Road, New Delhi -110 003, India

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[95]Future implications of China's energy-technology choices
Zongxin W, De Laquil P, Larson ED, Wenying C, Pengfei G. This paper summarizes the results of an assessment of future energy-technology strategies for China highlighting implications of different advanced energy-technology strategies that could allow China to continue its social and economic development while ensuring national energy-supply security and promoting environmental sustainability. The MARKAL energy-system-modelling tool was used to build a model of China's energy system. Different scenarios for the evolution of energy supply and demand from 1995 to 2050 were explored, enabling insights to be gained into different energy development choices that China might make. The overall conclusion from the analysis is that there are plausible energy-technology strategies that would enable China to continue social and economic development through at least the next 50 years while ensuring security of energy supply and improved local and global environmental quality. Surprisingly, except for the case when major reductions in carbon emissions are sought, the model predicts that such energy strategies would not involve significantly higher cumulative (1995-2050) discounted costs for the energy system than business-as-usual strategies. Furthermore, business-as-usual strategies, which were also modelled, will not enable China to meet all of its environmental and energy security goals. To meet these goals an energy development strategy that relies on the introduction of advanced technologies is essential. To realize such strategies, policies are needed in China that will (1) encourage utilization of a wider variety of primary energy sources (especially biomass and wind) and clean secondary energy carriers (especially synthetic fluid flues from coal and biomass); (2) support the development, demonstration, and commercialization of radically new clean energy conversion technologies to ensure that they are commercially available beginning in the next 10 to 20 years; and (3) support aggressive end-use energy efficiency improvement measures.
(9 figures, 2 tables, 15 references)
Energy for Sustainable Development5(4):19–31
Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology,
Energy Science Bldgjsinghua University, 100084 Beijing, China
<wuzx@mail.tsinghua.edu.en>

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[96]Improving modern energy access to the urban poor in Tanzania
Katyega MJJ. 2001Tanzania has over the last four decades experienced high urbanization trends. The urban sector energy usage has been increasing with the urban population. The majority of the urban poor households depend on traditional energy sources. Their access to modern energy sources is low. This paper attempts to investigate the urban poor energy consumption patterns in relation to their incomes, their affordability of traditional and modern energy sources, and hence, policy options on how to improve their access to modern energy services. The study is undertaken as part of the AFREPREN (African Energy Policy Research Network) funded regional study, which includes Zimbabwe, Ethiopia, and Uganda. The major findings in the article indicate that poverty is a major barrier for the urban poor to access modern energy services.
(23 tables)
Journal of Energy in Southern Africa12(3):415–425
Tanzania Electric Supply Co. Ltd,
PO Box 9024, Dar Es, salaam, Tanzania
<mkatyega@twiga.com>

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[97]Energy-capital tradeoffs in heat exchanger networks-the heat availability function approach
Reddy KA, Rao DP, and Davies GS. 2001A method is presented in this paper for energy-capital tradeoff study in heat exchanger network synthesis based on HAF (heat availability function) approach. The HAF method for predicting the minimum utilities is modified to obtain correct minimum utilities. A procedure is suggested to improve the efficiency of the heat exchanger network synthesis algorithm proposed earlier using HAF based on lower bound capital costs. The lower bound capital costs are further improved by specifying generalized multiplication factors at different minimum approach temperatures in order to make them suitable for energy-capital tradeoff study for both singlepass and multipass exchangers. The applicability of the improved HAF method is verified with different exemplary problems reported in literature. The suitability of the HAF approach to handle certain type of problems, where the other reported approach based on composite curves fails, is successfully demonstrated in this paper.
(6 figures, 11 tables, 15 references)
Indian Chemical Engineer43(4):273–277
Technology and Innovation Centre,
Larsen and Toubro Limited, B P Estate, Chhani, Baroda-391 740, India

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[98]Analysis of selected renewable energy options for India
Mathur J and Bansal NK. 2001Energy analysis of energy systems is a method to find the energy investment needed to install, operate, and maintain systems for energy supply. The results of such an analysis indicate the energy intensity, energy payback, and energy yield. Renewable energy technologies don't require much energy for their utilization but may require considerable energy for the erection or disposal of a facility. Wind energy converters, photovoltaic systems, and solar water heating systems have been analyzed, and energy yield ratios up to 75.89 have been found for wind energy systems, 7.14 for solar water heating systems, and 2.72 for photovoltaic systems. These values are an indication of the technical feasibility of these systems. The figures also suggest that wind energy converters are the most attractive systems, followed by solar water heating and photovoltaic systems respectively.
(2 figures, 6 tables, 2 references)
Energy Sources23(10):877–888
Centre for Energy Studies,
Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi - 110 016, India
<jyot1@hotmail.com>

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[99]The asymmetric effects of changes in price and income on energy and oil demand
Gately D and Huntington HG. 2002This paper estimates the effects on energy and oil demand of changes in income and oil prices, for 96 of the world's largest countries, in per-capita terms. Three important issues have been examined (1) the asymmetric effects on demand of increases and decreases in oil prices; (2) the asymmetric effects on demand of increases and decreases in income; (3) the different speeds of demand adjustment to changes in price and income. The main conclusions are the following: (1) OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) demand responds much more to increases in oil prices than to decreases; ignoring this asymmetric price response will bias downward the estimated response to income changes; (2) demand's response to income decreases in many non-OECD countries is not necessarily symmetric to its response to income increases; ignoring this asymmetric income response will bias the estimated response to income changes; (3) the speed of demand adjustment is faster to changes in income than to changes in price; ignoring this difference will bias upward the estimated response to income changes. Using correctly specified equations for energy and oil demand, the long-run response in demand for income growth is about 1.0 for non-OECD oil exporters, income growers and perhaps all non-OECD countries, and about 0.55 for OECD countries. These estimates for developing countries are significantly higher than current estimates used by the US Department of Energy.
(9 figures, 7 tables, 20 references)
The Energy Journal23(1):19–53
Economics Department,
New York University, 269 Mercer Street (Room 320), New York, NY 10003, US
<Dermot.Gately@nyu.edu>

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[100]Benefits and costs of stimulating the use of biofuels in the Swedish heating sector
Brannlund R and Kristrom B. 2001The possible impacts on the Swedish heating sector and the associated changes of emissions, due to reformation of Swedish energy tax system have been studied in this paper. The reduction of the CO2 tax combined with subsidies to promote biofuels have been analysed. The results raised the issue of whether or not the Swedish tax system needs to be complemented with additional environmental taxes, covering, say, emissions of particu-lates. Because the geographical variation of damages is likely to be substantial, an overall reassessment of current regulatory schemes seems preferable.
(1 figure, 8 tables, 10 references)
Resource and Energy Economics23(4):343–358
Department of Forest Economics,
SLU, SE 901 87 Umea, Sweden
<bengt.kristrom@sekon.slu.se>

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[101]Energy efficiency in China
Farinelli U, Yokobori K, and Fengqi Z. 2001Although its per capita energy consumption is still only one half of the world average, China is already the second largest energy consumer in the world. In the 1970s, China's energy efficiency was very low, sharing the negative characteristics in this respect of both developing countries and centrally planned economies. Since then, great progress has been made, with a decline of energy intensity of GDP (gross domestic product) of about 5.4% per year between 1980-1997, due both to improvement in energy efficiency and, in a greater proportion, to shifts in the composition of GDP. The elasticity of energy to GDP is now lower than 0.5. The presence in China of abundant, low-cost coal resources, although favourable to economic development, inhibits efforts to improve energy efficiency. In China, smaller plants (particularly in township and village enterprises) perform worse than large-scale plants, and are nowadays often being shut down. However, highly efficient technologies for small-scale production are available in industrialized countries and deserved to be explored. Combined production of heat and power is already widespread in China, especially for urban space heating; however, its efficiency is much lower than it could be with modern plants having a higher electricity to heat ratio and serving more particularly the industrial sector. Great improvements in energy performance are expected for new buildings, both commercial and residential. Institutional and other non-technical issues are also being addressed; economic instruments based on market forces are the most effective. Much remains to be done to bring China to the level of the most energy-efficient countries, but China has unique opportunities to become a world leader in the efficient use of energy, because both of the rapidly expanding economy and of the flexibility inherent in the low level of existing energy infrastructure.
(2 figures, 9 references)
Energy for Sustainable Development5(4):32–38
ANVAST,
Via del Viminale 43, 00184, Rome, Italy

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[102]The value of renewables
Koch HJ. 2001The ministers of the IEA (International Energy Agency) countries have endorsed an increased role for renewables, in the energy portfolio, and renewables are also high on the agenda of developing countries. Drawing on the IEA's research and analysis, this study outlines a strategy for facilitating the accelerated growth of renewables markets. The study suggests that increased investment is part of such a coherent and comprehensive strategy for more effective and efficient market development.
(2 figures)
Renewable Energy World4(6):33–45
Deputy Permanent Secretary,
at the Permanent Danish Representation to The European Union
<hankoc@um.dk>

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[103]Regulatory reform and market development in power sectors of transition economies: the case of Kazakhstan
Kennedy D. 2002Though there has been much progress in power sector liberalization in Kazakhstan, further benefits would accrue through enhanced market arrangements and rebalanced transmission tariffs. If further progress can be made in the areas of privatization, regulation, and liberalization, then there should be significant benefits for Kazakhstan. The study suggests that (1) privatization in correct institutional setting will lead to improvements in cash collection and secure investments to enhance system security at least cost, (2) if markets are to be introduced in transition economy power sectors, then bilateral contacting, possibly with balancing pool arrangements, are more appropriate than full pools, at least in early stages of sector transition.
(37 references)
Energy Policy30(3):219–233
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development,
One Exchange Square, London EC2A2JN, UK
<kennedyd@ebrd.com>

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[104]Embodied energy in buildings: wood versus concrete-reply to Börjesson and Gustavsson
Lenzen M and Treloar G. 2002The wood and concrete designs of the WÄlludden building described by Börjesson and Gustavsson (Energy Policy Vol. 20, 2000) in southern Sweden has been analysed in terms of their embodied energy, employing an environmentally extended input-output framework in a tiered hybrid life-cycle assessment, and in a structural path analysis. The complexity of the interindustry supply chains underlying upstream energy requirements has been illustrated. The results show that Börjesson and Gustavsson's estimates of energy requirements and greenhouse gas emissions are underestimated by a factor of about 2, and that corresponding greenhouse gas balances are positive at about 30 tonnes of carbon equivalent. Nevertheless, Börjesson and Gustavsson's general results - the concrete-framed building causing higher emission - still holds.
(4 tables, 60 references)
Energy Policy30(3):249–255
School of Physics,
A28The University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
<m.lenzen@physics.usyd.edu.au>

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[105]Testing of fluorescent DC lamps for solar home systems
Narvarte L, Mufioz J, and Lorenzo E. 2001With the advent of the universal technical standard for solar home systems, procedures to test the compliance of SHS fluorescent lamps with the standard lamps have been developed. Definition of the laboratory testing procedures is a necessary step in any lamp quality assurance procedure. Particular attention has been paid to test simplicity and affordability, in order to facilitate local application of the testing procedures, for example by the organizations, which carry out electrification programmes. The set of test procedures has been applied to a representative collection of 42 lamps from many different countries, directly acquired in the current photovoltaic rural electrification market. Test apply to lamp resistance under normal operating conditions; lamp reliability under normal, extreme and abnormal conditions; and lamp luminosity. Results are discussed and some recommendations for updating the relevant standard are given. The selected technical standard, together with the proposed testing procedures, form the basis of a complete quality assurance tool that can be applied locally in normal electrical laboratories. Full testing of a lamp requires less than month, which is very reasonable on the context of quality assurance programmes. The main finding was that underrated and unprotected lamps have a significant presence on the current market, and hence quality assurance procedures are fully justified. On the other hand, there is no clear one-to-one relationship between lamp lifetime and electrical parameters capable of immediate measurement, such as crest factor. Hence, lamp reliability under normal operation conditions should be directly checked by means of a cycling test.
(11 figures, 3 tables, 40 references)
Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications9(6):475–489
Instituto de Energia Solar,
ETSI Telecomunication, Ciudad Universitaria, s/n 28040 Madrid, Spain
<navarte@ies-def.upm.es>

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