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TERI Information Digest on Energy and Environment
Year : 2002, Volume : 1, Issue : 1
First page : ( 37) Last page : ( 39)
Print ISSN : 0972-6721.

Energy storage

 


[79]Nickel-based rechargeable batteries
Shukla AK, Venugopalan S, and Hariprakash B. 2001This paper highlights the operating principles and advances made in the nickel-based battery systems during the recent years. Among the various nickel-based batteries reviewed, Ni-MH (nickel-metal hydride) batteries seem to have widespread commercial viability and significant opportunity for improvement. Ni-MH batteries appear to be the technology of choice for the emerging electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel cell electric vehicles. Important advances in positive and negative electrode materials have allowed prototype Ni-MH batteries of over 100 Wh/kg specific energy. At the same time, specific power has been increased from 150 to over 1000 W/kg, with further advances in the laboratory.
(28 figures, 58 references)
Journal of Power Sources100(land2):125–148
Solid-state and Structural Chemistry Unit,
Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore - 560 012, India
<shukla@sscu.iisc.ernet.in>

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[80]Modelling of a nickel-hydrogen cell: phase reactions in the nickel active material
Wu B and White RE. 2001The modelling efforts made for nickel-hydrogen cells earlier have been enhanced in this paper with a comprehensive scheme of phase reactions in the nickel active material, and to investigate with the model the effects of nickel phase reactions on the behavior of nickel-hydrogen cell. Important mechanisms inside a nickel-hydrogen cell, such as mass balances of active species, kinetics of electrochemical reactions, and energy balance of the whole cell etc., have been included in the model. The model predictions showed that nickel phase reactions have significant influences on the behaviour of nickel-hydrogen cell. Some observed phenomena of a nickel-hydrogen cell e.g., capacity variations at different temperatures and the KOH concentration change between charge and discharge processes, could be reflected reasonably with the model.
(36 figures, 2 tables, 20 references)
Journal of The Electrochemical Society148(6):A595-A609
Center for Electrochemical Engineering,
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208, US
<white@engr.sc.edu>

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[81]Thermal energy storage for space cooling: an underutilized opportunity in federal buildings
Brown DR. 2001Thermal energy storage for space cooling is a relatively mature technology experiencing evolutionary improvements to older concepts, innovation with newer concepts, and extension of applicability from chilled water systems to packaged rooftop systems. The impetus for considering cool storage systems (from the end-user's perspective rather than the electric utility's perspective) was originally driven by high demand charges and/or on-peak energy charges and the opportunity to save on energy costs. While electric rates are still a significant motivation for implementing cool storage, many systems are being installed today on the basis of lower first cost and/or lower energy consumption as well. Cool storage systems have become relatively common in the commercial sector, particularly in applications such as schools that have high ratios of peak to average cooling loads. Federal applications have lagged, however, representing only about 1% of the total population of installed systems. With many federal facilities having characteristics similar to commercial facilities where cool storage has been successfully installed, broader consideration of cool storage at federal facilities seems warranted. The rough estimate of federal sector potential described above also suggests that significantly greater utilization would be beneficial. Still, there are no simple rules of thumb that will always identify where cool storage can be cost-effectively applied. The use of cool storage or not and selection of the best cool storage system must be carefully considered via screening studies on a site-specific basis.
(3 figures, 12 references)
Energy Engineering98(6):7–26
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory,
P O Box No. 999, Richland, W A 99352
<daryl.brown@pnl.gov>

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[82]Lead-acid battery energy-storage systems for electricity supply networks
Parker CD. 2001This paper examines the development of lead-acid battery energy-storage systems (BESSs) for utility applications in terms of their design, purpose, benefits and performance. For the most part, the information is derived from published reports and pre-sentations at conferences. Many of the systems are familiar within the energy-storage community; others have appeared in numerous tabulations of such systems, but little is known about them beyond the basic descriptive parameters such as energy and power ratings. As a consequence, some are simply cited without comment while others are described in appreciable detail. It is found that a progression in the maturity and applications of battery-storage is evident in these systems.
(2 tables, 19 references)
Journal of Power Sources100(1–2):18–28
International Lead Zinc Research Organization,
PO Box 12036, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709–2036, US

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