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TERI Information Digest on Energy and Environment
Year : 2002, Volume : 1, Issue : 1
First page : ( 22) Last page : ( 27)
Print ISSN : 0972-6721.

Wood energy

 


[37]Village resource development as an incentive to sustain the joint forest management programme
Sethi P and Singh TP. 2001Several studies have suggested that village resource development is necessary for sustaining the JFM (joint forest management) programme. Though JFM provides village people with various forest usufruct such as fuelwood, fodder, non-wood forest produce and a share in the final timber harvest in varying proportions as an incentive for forest protection, this is insufficient in itself to enhance the local communities' income levels, and reduce forest dependency. Recently, lot of efforts have been made in community development, initiation of income-generating schemes, and providing people with employment and wage earning opportunities. These have led to decreased forest dependency and to sustain the JFM programme. This paper reviews the role that village development has to play in JFM programmes and explores ways to make such activities sustainable.
(1 figure, 3 tables, 11 references)
The Indian Forester127(11):1215–1222
Forestry and Biodiversity Group,
TERI, Habitat Place, Lodhi Road, New Delhi - 110 003, India

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[38]Mixed signals and government orders: the problem of on-again off-again community forestry policy
Britt C. 2001Nepal's community forestry programme is widely celebrated as one of the most progressive policy examples of devolving control over forest resources to community-based user groups. Following the introduction of progressive legislation in the early 1990s, the number of user groups has grown from a few hundred to over 9000 with participation spanning all of Nepal's 75 districts. Demand for user group formation exceeds the Department of Forest's capacity to respond. And, in many parts of Nepal, the forests are greener. However, despite apparent success, the future of community forestry remains uncertain. Recent government orders threaten to undermine the institutional autonomy and usufruct rights that have proved so central to the expansion of community forests. This is an unfortunate retreat from provisions that form the foundation for a locally-ownable community forestry policy. It signals a return to the disempowering 'basic needs' forestry paradigms of the 1970s. This article considers factors influencing community forestry policy formulations arguing that the future of community forestry in Nepal, as elsewhere, depends on the ability of forest users to collectively organize in different arenas and at different levels — locally, nationally, and internationally.
(1 table, 1 references)
Forests, Trees and People (Newsletter)45:29–33
5735 Buena Vista Avenue,
Oakland CA 94618, USA
<cb43@cornell.edu>

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[39]A framework for assessing carbon flow in Indian wood products
Gundimeda H. 2001This paper uses a life-cycle analysis to trace the fate of carbon bound in wood products until most of the carbon is released back into the atmosphere. A sensitivity analysis has been carried out to find the effect of change in terminal use (recycling, land filling and burning of discarded products), half-life of wood products, and decay rate of carbon in landfills. Of the total carbon harvested from forests in India, about 90% is released into the atmosphere in the first year due to burning of fuelwood; at the end of 100 years, about 0.8% still remains in the wood products. The sensitivity analysis shows that the length of the lifespan of wood products has only a marginal effect on the amount of carbon sequestered but has significant effect on the amount of carbon in products in use. Thus an important conclusion from this scenario is that by increasing the durability of the wood products, carbon can be locked over a period equal to the time needed to grow the timber for these products. Further, the carbon storage is affected more significantly by the decay rate of carbon in landfills than the proportion of products recycled. The study also shows that wood products can be important stores of carbon, but only if they can substitute for a unit of carbon emitted by burning fossil fuels. Such a life-cycle analysis has the potential to account completely for carbon stock changes in the wood products and explain where, when, and how they are occurring.
(7 figures, 6 tables, 32 references)
Environment Development and Sustainability3(3):229–251
Environmental Economics Unit,
Department of Economics, University of Goteborg, Box 640, SE 40530, Sweden
<hpriyags@yahoo.com>

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[40]Role of wood and biomass fuel in the total energy consumption in Sri Lanka
Fernando MPAUS. 2001Biomass accounts for about 55% of the total energy resource in Sri Lanka with fuelwood as a major source of energy (about 90%) for the household sector. This study provides the biomass energy consumption patterns in Sri Lanka. In order to develop the biomass energy sector, the following recommendations are made: (1) give due recognition to the biomass energy sector in the overall energy policy of Sri Lanka. (2) development of new technologies for fuelwood consuming industries in order to increase the efficiency of utilization, thereby reducing the quantity of fuelwood required; and (3) establishment of an agency to deal with all aspects of the fuelwood sector including production, marketing, and efficient utilization.
(6 figures, 7 tables)
Regional Wood Energy Development Programme in Asia, pp. 73–81, Bangkok: FAO. [RWEDP Report No. 58]
FAO Regional Office for Asia and Pacific,
Bangkok, Thailand, Forest Department, Sri Lanka

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[41]The implications of forestry, energy and agriculture sector policies for sustainable wood energy development in Sri Lanka
Hewage T. 2001Wood energy plays an important role in the energy sector of Sri Lanka. However, at present there is no firm institutional mechanism or policy framework to support wood energy development. The Energy Policy of 1977, which comprehensively supports wood energy development, has not been approved as a national policy. Hence, there should be a declared national policy for energy, which will highlight the importance of wood energy. It is also of paramount importance that an institution responsible for the overall development of wood energy be established without further delay to ensure sustainable wood energy development in Sri Lanka.
(1 figure)
Regional Wood Energy Development Programme in Asia, pp. 66–72, Bangkok: FAO. [RWEDP Report No. 58]
FAO Regional Office for Asia and Pacific,
Bangkok, Thailand, Ministry of Forest and Environment, Sri Lanka

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[42]Woodfuel demand and supply in Vietnam
Chu HC. 2002Woodfuel is an important energy source, particularly in rural areas in Vietnam. This paper presents the fuelwood consumption and demand data in different sectors of Vietnam. The household sector is found to be the biggest consumer of fuelwood. This paper suggests that in order to achieve sustainable agriculture and forestry development, the rural fuel problems should be solved. Woodfuel should be produced and distributed with proper planning. In order to use fuelwood economically and rationally different types of processed fuel such as charcoal baked wooden coal, and improved stoves should be used. Training of personnel for specialization in wood energy is necessary.
(18 tables)
Regional Wood Energy Development Programme in Asia, pp. 53–66, Bangkok: FAO. [RWEDP Report No. 59]
Forestry Science Institute of Vietnam,
Vietnam

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[43]Electricity from energy crops in different settings — a country comparison between Nicaragua, Ireland and The Netherlands
van den Broek R, van Wijk A, and Turkenburg W. 2002This study presents the causes of differences in the costs, environmental and macro-economic impacts of energy crop based electricity generation in the three countries — Ireland, Nicaragua, and The Netherlands. Although the cost of producing energy crops in Nicaragua is much lower than in The Netherlands and Ireland, the resulting cost of electricity is relatively close to that in the other two countries. This is mainly caused by the high internal rate of return required in Nicaragua. Electricity generation in The Netherlands from eucalyptus imported from Nicaragua would be just above the low cost estimate of energy crops cultivated in The Netherlands. Besides importing untreated wood, international trade could also be based on densified or liquefied biomass, biomass-derived electricity or import of emission reduction credits. In The Netherlands, biomass energy can benefit significantly from the exemption of the regulating energy tax and other stimulative measures for renewables. The cost per tonne of CO2-equivalent avoided is the lowest in Nicaragua. Because of the low conversion efficiency, in Nicaragua only half the amount of CO2 emission reduction could be obtained per hectare of land as compared to the other two countries. The macro-economic advantages of energy crops are the largest in Nicaragua. This impact is also likely to be the most relevant in this country.
(1 figure, 5 tables, 10 references)
Biomass and Bioenergy22(2):79–98
Department of Science,
Technology and Society, Utrecht University, Padualaan 14, 3584 CH Utrecht, The Netherlands

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[44]Fuelwood depletion at wilderness campsites: extent and potential ecological significance
Hall TE and Farrell TA. 2001Recreational camping in wilderness areas causes a number of biophysical impacts, including loss of woody debris through campfires. Although extensive research has documented trampling impacts to vegetation, few studies have explored the extent of woody material depletion. This study adapted planar transect methods to measure the relative loss of fine (<0.6 cm), small (0.6-10 2.5 cm), medium (2.6-7.6 cm), and large (>7.6 cm) diameter materials in three concentric rings extending 0-5 m, 5-10 m and 10-15 m from the centre of 58 campsites in different environments ranging in elevation from 1250-2225 m in the Cascades Mountains in Oregon, USA. Compared to matched controls, losses were greatest for small-sized (40%) and medium-sized (63%) materials, but were evident for fine (25%) and large-sized (30%) materials as well. Surprisingly, depletion (across all sizes) was no greater in the centre of sites than in the outer measurement ring, even though the outer ring was often in intact vegetation. This suggests that impacts on woody debris extend beyond those impacts to vegetation typically monitored at campsites. Such recreational impacts to woody debris have rarely been systematically described. However, research on woody debris removal related to forest management indicates possible ecological effects of fuelwood consumption.
(2 figures, 2 tables, 34 references)
Environmental Conservation28(3):241–247
Department of Resource Recreation and Tourism,
University of Idaho, Moscow. Idaho, 83844 USA,
<troyh@vidaho.edu>

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[45]Energy evaluation of forest residues originated from Eucalyptus globulus Labill in Galcia
Nufiez-Regueira L, Proupfn-Castineiras J, and Rodrfguez-Anon JA. 2002The possibility of retrieving the energy contained in forest residues originating from wood exploitation in Galicia (Spain) is evaluated. This study was made on Eucalyptus globulus Labill occupying a forest surface of 240 000 ha. This species plays an important role in the economical development of Galicia, as it is the main forest species for production of pulp. Sampling was made over 1999 across seven different zones, three main stations plus four selected for comparison, situated in Galicia. The residues originating from cutting were sorted into three different groups and their calorific values were measured by static bomb calorimetry. These calorific values, close to 7200 kJ/kg, make possible the use of this residual biomass as an energy source.
(4 figures, 7 tables, 8 references)
Bioresource Technology82(1):5–13
Department of Applied Physics,
Research Group TERBIPROMAT, University of Santiago, 15706 Santiago, Spain
<falisar1@usemail.usc.es>

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[46]Growing stock-based forest biomass estimate for India
Chhabra A, Palria S, and Dadhwal VK. 2002The total growing stock volume density in India for the study year 1992/93 was estimated at 74.42 m3/ha, with a range of 7.1-224.5 m3/ha. The mean biomass density in Indian forest was estimated at 135.6 t/ha and amongst the states it varied from 27.4 t/ha in Punjab to 251.8 t/ha in Jammu and Kashmir, respectively. The total standing biomass (above ground and below ground) was estimated at 8683 MT. The aboveground and belowground biomass was estimated at 6865.1 MT and 1818.7 MT, contributing 79% and 21% to the total biomass respectively. The study has also highlighted state-level differences in forest biomass density in India. Biomass density estimates coupled with RS (remote sensing) data of changes in land use can be used as inputs to carbon models to improve the understanding of role of forests in estimates of net carbon flux to the atmosphere. The forest biomass needs to be conserved and sustained both for energy demand as well as potential carbon sinks for rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations.
(3 tables, 33 references)
Biomass and Bioenergy22(3):187–194
Agricultural Resources Group,
Remote Sensing Applications Area, Space Applications Centre (ISRO), Ahmedabad - 380 015, India,
<dadhwalvk@hotmail.com>

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[47]Remote sensing, field survey, and long-term forecasting: an efficient combination for local assessments of forest fuels
Baath H, Gallerspang A, Hallsby G, Lundstrom A, Lofgren P, Nilsson M, Stahl G. 2002This article describes and evaluates a method for assessing local biofuel potentials. Such assessments are important, for example, in connection with the establishment of heating plants for local communities. A sparse grid of field sample plots from an existing NFI (national forest inventory) is used as reference data for satellite image based estimates of forest condition. The data thus obtained will be in a format that makes them readily available for existing forestry scenario models, in this case the Swedish Hugin system. Thus, forecasts of future harvesting levels and the corresponding amounts of forest fuels - mainly from branches and tops - can be derived in a straightforward manner. The proposed method was evaluated in two test areas in northern Sweden, the communes of Vindeln and Älvsbyn. Besides a base-line scenario for the forecasts, a scenario with geographical restrictions as to the extraction of forest fuels was tested. With a maximum transportation distance of 300 m to road, the available forest fuel potential was shown to decrease by more than 50%. With the proposed method, this kind of geographical restriction is easily implemented.
(1 figure, 4 tables, 18 references)
Biomass and Bioenergy22(3):145–157
SLU,
Department of Forest Resource Management and Geomatics, SE-90183 Umea, Sweden

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[48]Energy yields in intensive and extensive biomass production systems
Nonhebel S. 2002As for agricultural crops, biomass crops can be grown in intensive production systems (external inputs such as pesticides and artificial fertilizers) or extensive systems with few external inputs. The choice between an intensive or extensive production system has consequences for yields. A method is presented to estimate biomass yields in intensive and/or extensive production systems. This method is applied to a poplar coppice production system. Results of the method are used to evaluate several intensive and extensive production systems with respect to bioenergy yield and fossil fuel use efficiency. The energy yield (GJ/ha) of the intensive systems was highest, while the extensive systems show the better fossil fuel use efficiency (GJ output/GJ fossil energy input).
(8 figures, 24 references)
Biomass and Bioenergy22(3):159–167
IVEM,
Center for Energy and Environmental Studies, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands

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[49]Modelling thermally thick pyrolysis of wood
Bryden KM, Ragland KW, and Rutland CJ. 2002Understanding the mechanisms and rates of wood combustion is important for modelling building fires and for designing wood-stoves, furnaces and boilers. Modelling combustion of these wood fuels involves applying chemical kinetics, heat transfer, and mass transfer to drying, pyrolysis, char, and external gas phase processes. In this paper, a general model for pyrolysis of a wood slab has been presented and has been utilized to examine the effect of wood size, moisture content, temperature on the rate of pyrolysis, and formation of tar, volatiles, and char. Results showed that the pyrolysis rate of wood depends primarily on radiant surface temperature and particle size, and secondarily on particle moisture. Predicted pyrolysis times ranged from 10 min. for small particles at 2000 K to 80 min. for large particles at 800 K. Yields of tar and light hydrocarbons depend on particle size and temperature and are inversely coupled, while char yield remains relatively constant.
(8 figures, 4 tables, 38 references)
Biomass and Bioenergy22(1):41–53
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011–2161, USA
<kmbryden@iastate.edu>

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