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TERI Information Digest on Energy and Environment
Year : 2002, Volume : 1, Issue : 1
First page : ( 15) Last page : ( 16)
Print ISSN : 0972-6721.

Hydrogen

 


[18]Metal hydride batteries research using nanostructured additives
Hermann AM, Ramakrishnan PA, Badri V, Mardilorich P, Landuyt W. 2001An alternative method to improve the capacity of metal hydride batteries using nanostructured additives has been presented in this paper. Nanomaterials absorb large quantities of hydrogen by the virtue of their high surface area. The nanostructured additives of palladium, copper, and nickel were incorporated separately into the negative electrode of the metal hydride batteries. The electrochemical performance was studied. The nanomaterial-incorporated negative electrodes showed increased cell voltage and negative electrode potential compared to that of a pristine alloy electrode. It is also concluded that the increase in discharge capacity of electrodes depends on the hydrogen storage capacity of nanomaterials.
(9 figures, 18 references)
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy26(12):1295–1299
Department of Physics,
University of Colorado at Boulder, Campus Box390, Boulder, CO 80309–0390, USA
<allen.hermann@colorado.edu>

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[19]Hydrogen production by catalytic decomposition of methane
Shah N, Panjala D, and Huffman GP. 2001Traditionally, hydrogen is produced by reforming or partial oxidation of methane to produce synthesis gas, followed by the water-gas shift reaction to convert CO to CO2 and produce more hydrogen, followed in turn by a purification or separation procedure. This paper presents the results for catalytic decomposition of undiluted methane into hydrogen and carbon using nanoscale, binary, Fe - M (M = Pd, Mo, or Ni) catalysts supported on alumina. All of the supported Fe-M binary catalysts reduced methane decomposition temperature by 400-500 ºC relative to non-catalytic thermal decomposition and exhibited significantly higher activity than Fe or any of the secondary metals (Pd, Mo, and Ni) supported on alumina alone. At reaction temperatures of approximately 700-800 ºC and space velocities of 600 -ml/g/h, the product stream was comprised of over 80 volume % of hydrogen, with the balance being unconverted methane. No CO, CO2 or C2 and higher hydrocarbons were observed in the product gas. High-resolution SEM and TEM characterization indicated that almost all carbon produced in the temperature range of 700-800 °C is in the form of potentially useful multi-walled nanotubes. At higher temperatures (> 900 ºC), hydrogen production decreases and carbon is deposited on the catalyst in the form of amorphous carbon, carbon flakes, and carbon fibers. In the non-catalytic thermal decomposition mode, at temperatures above 900 °C, graphitic carbon film is deposited everywhere in the reactor. Thus, the morphology of the carbon produced may be the controlling parameter in catalytic decomposition of methane. The efficient removal of carbon from the catalyst surface in the form of nanotubes may be the key factor influencing catalyst performance.
(16 figures)
Energy and Fuels15(6):1528–1534
University of Kentucky,
533 South Limestone Street, Room 111, Lexington, Kentucky 40508–4005, USA
<naresh@pop.uky.edu>

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