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TERI Information Digest on Energy and Environment
Year : 2002, Volume : 1, Issue : 1
First page : ( 12) Last page : ( 14)
Print ISSN : 0972-6721.

Petroleum

 


[9]The development and use of metal deactivators in the petroleum industry: a review
Waynick JA. 2001This paper presents a review of the development and use of metal deactivators in the petroleum industry. The chemistry of how these additives work is detailed. Discussions of three classes of action attributed to metal deactivators, chelation, surface passivation, and bulk phase reactivity are provided. In this regard, special emphasis is given to the metal deactivator N, N'-disalicylidine-1, 2 propane diamine (MDA) in aviation turbine fuels. The impact of MDA on jet fuel thermal stability is reviewed. The study concludes that the use of MDA in jet fuels has become controversial due to its ability to improve JFTOT (jet fuel thermal oxidation tester) results even when deleterious metals are not present in significant levels. Further investigation appear to indicate properties other than chelation exist for MDA. These additional properties, surface passivation and bulk phase reactivity, continue to be less than adequately defined despite various efforts by numerous researchers.
(5 figures, 5 tables)
Energy and Fuels15(6):1325–1340
Southwest Research Institute,
6220 Culebra Road, PO Drawer 28510, San Antonio, Texas 78228–0510, USA

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[10]An experimental comparison between a recombined hydrocarbon-water fluid and a model fluid system in three-phase pipe flow
Utvik OH, Rinde T, and Valle A. 2001In this paper, results are presented from an experimental comparison between a light hydrocarbon system from the North Sea and a model oil system in pipe flow. The experiments were carried out in order to compare similar fluid systems (density, viscosity, oil-water interfacial tension) with respect to pressure drop and flow pattern for horizontal flow. The results showed significant deviations for two- and three-phase flows. This might contribute to the explanation of the discrepancies often revealed between multiphase models and measurements on multiphase flowlines in the oil and gas industry.
(7 figures, 2 tables, 17 references)
Journal of Energy Resources Technology123(4):253–259
Norsk Hydro,
Research Centre Porsgrunn, N3907 Porsgrunn, Norway
<trygve.rinde@altinex.no>

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[11]Low-pressure modeling of wax formation in crude oils
Coutinho JAP and Daridon J-L. 2001A thermodynamic model and a characterization procedure for crude oils are proposed for the description of wax formation in crudes at atmospheric pressure. The proposed model, unlike previous published models, is purely predictive in that it uses only pure compound properties and the fluid composition to describe wax formation. It needs very little information on the fluid composition, requiring basically some information on the n-alkane distribution, although it can work based on some judicious estimates. The model treats the liquid phase as an ideal phase and thus does not need any information on the nature of the solvent. Any characterization procedure can be used with the proposed model as long as a reasonable description of the individual n-alkane composition is assured. Comparisons of the model with experimental data for crudes available in the literature show that it can produce excellent predictions of wax formation in a wide range of crudes from different parts of the world, and if enough information on the lower compounds is available, predictions at very low temperatures can be performed with the same quality.
(12 figures)
Energy and Fuels15(6):1454–1460
Departamento de Qui-mica da Universidade de Aveiro,
3810 Aveiro, Portugal

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[12]Oil-water two-phase flows in large-diameter pipelines
Shi H, Cai J, and Jepson WP. 2001Two-phase oil-water flows in a 10-cm-dia horizontal pipe have been experimentally investigated to study the effect of surfactant on oil-water distributions. Results show that at input water cut of 20% and below, the water layer velocity is lower than the mixed layer velocity up to input mixture velocity of 1.6 m/s. However, at input water cut of 40% and above, the water layer velocity is lower than the mixed layer velocity up to input mixture velocity of only 0.8 m/s. Oil and water are much easier to be mixed at the medium input water cuts between 40% and 60%. The addition of surfactant enhances the degree of mixing of oil-water flow. With the increase of surfactant concentration, the water layer disappeared, oil and water started to mix at lower mixture velocity, and the homogeneous flow pattern was observed at much lower input mixture velocity. Also, the mixed layer occupies a much greater fraction of the pipe. These indicate that corrosion could be reduced at lower input superficial mixture velocity with surfactants in oil-water flows.
(12 figures, 9 references)
Journal of Energy Resources Technology123(4):270–276
NSF,
I/UCRC Institute for Corrosion and Multiphase Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701, USA
<huashi@stanford.edu>

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[13]Horizontal well path planning and correction using optimization techniques
Mc Cann RC and Suryanarayana PVR. 2001A procedure that uses nonlinear optimization theory to plan complex, 3-D (three-dimensional) well paths and path corrections while drilling has been presented in this paper. The problem of hitting a 3-D target is posed as seeking a profile that optimizes some well-defined objective function (the optimality criterion) subject to equality and inequality constraints. The well path is idealized to contain a finite combination of turn and straight sections. Operational restrictions translate into equality constraints. Several optimality criteria may be chosen, and appropriate choices are discussed. In this paper, optimization with respect to user preferred parameters as the criterion has been chosen. The resulting nonlinear optimization problem is solved using a sequential gradient-restoration algorithm, with scaling and optimal step-size selection. The optimization problem formulation and the solution procedure are described. The procedure is robust, efficient, and clearly superior to trial-and error heuristic techniques that are commonly used to plan well paths today. A computer program based on this technique has been developed and successfully used. Two examples are included to illustrate the procedure. It is concluded that nonlinear optimization is a powerful and versatile mathematical tool that can be used for planning better, optimal well paths, and can be extended to several other drilling and production problems.
(4 figures, 2 tables, 12 references)
Journal of Energy Resources Technology123(3):187–193
ExxonMobil Upstream Research Company,
Houston, IX 77252, USA
<roger_c_mccann@email.mobil.com>

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[14]Application of predictive enhanced oil recovery models on a very heavy oil field
Kok MV and Akin S. 2001In this study, several predictive EOR (enhanced oil recovery) techniques are used to evaluate potential thermal oil recovery techniques that could be applied on a very heavy oil (10-12°API) field located in Southeast Turkey. Two of the EOR techniques were found to be applicable after the screening process — in situ combustion and steam injection. Sensitivity of the processes to several operating parameters, such as steam injection rate, air injection rate, and steam quality, were established. It was observed that initial project life was not critical in steam injection. However, at higher air injection rates project life was shorter for in situ combustion. As a result of steam-flood and in situ combustion model applications, it was observed that the steam-flood model provided higher recoveries and longer project lives with low residual oil saturation.
(4 figures, 2 tables, 10 references)
Energy Sources23(10):907–916
Department of Petroleum and Natural Gas Energy,
Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara, Turkey

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[15]Global oil and gas depletion: an overview
Bentley RW. 2002This paper discusses the current and future hydrocarbon supply position worldwide. The main findings of the study show (1) rapid decline in global total hydrocarbon production from around 2010 or so; (2) a relatively modest contribution from non-conventional oils, but constraints including cost, energy content, and CO2 emissions, will prevent these sources from fully offsetting conventional oil's decline; and (3) decline in conventional gas production from about 2020.
(9 figures, 35 references)
Energy Policy30(3):189–205
The Oil Depletion Analysis Centre,
Suite 12, 305 Gt Portland Street, London WIW 5DA, UK

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