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Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology
Year : 2016, Volume : 9, Issue : 7
First page : ( 957) Last page : ( 963)
Print ISSN : 0974-3618. Online ISSN : 0974-360X.
Article DOI : 10.5958/0974-360X.2016.00183.9

Role of Zamzam water as a vital mineral supplement in the treatment of opioid dependence and tolerance: A Review

Halim Shariff, Mohamad Nasir*, Toriman Mohd EKhwan, Bakar Nor Hidayah Abu, Hashim Siti Norhajah, Adnan Liyana Hazwani Mohd, Zakaria Nur Husna, Nur

Opioid Research Interest Group, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA), Medical Campus, Jalan Sultan Mahmud, 20400, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia

*Corresponding Author E-mail: nasirmohamad@unisza.edu.my

Online published on 15 October, 2016.


Opioid dependency or tolerance is a worldwide problem that affects all societies in terms of health, social and economic welfare. It is a need to explore more alternative treatment to address opiate dependence and tolerance besides our current conventional medication. In exploring the alternative supplement to reduce opiate dependence and tolerance, this article reviews and describes the evidence of a relationship between mineral and opiate dependence and tolerance. We also discuss about the action mechanism of mineral to alleviate opiate dependence and tolerance which are abundantly available in the Holy Zamzam water.



Opiate dependence, tolerance, mineral supplement, Zamzam water.


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