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Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology
Year : 2015, Volume : 8, Issue : 12
First page : ( 1719) Last page : ( 1724)
Print ISSN : 0974-3618. Online ISSN : 0974-360X.
Article DOI : 10.5958/0974-360X.2015.00309.1

History of Antibiotics and Evolution of Resistance

Ramalingam Aishwarya J.*

Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chrompet, Bharath University, Chennai

*Corresponding Author E-mail: jhaish@rediffmail.com

Online published on 1 January, 2016.


The discovery of penicillin in 1928, by Alexander Fleming marked a milestone in modern medicine. Thus the “antibiotic revolution ”saved millions of lives during Second World War. Subsequently, this paved a way for the advent of new antibiotics against dreadful infections. The evolution of antibiotic resistance in bacteria is primarily due to the drug selection pressure, which involves use of drugs both in humans and animals. It is of epidemiological concern as the resistance may spread locally, regionally or globally. Emergence of 'Superbugs ’(bacteria highly resistant to antimicrobial agents) has severely threatened therapeutic options in the last few decades. The battle against these pathogens is an ultimate challenge.



Antibiotics, beta-lactams, carbapenems, antibiotic resistance.


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