Level of cellular damage of patients with renal failure during dialysis
*Corresponding Author E-mail: email@example.com
Background: Type II Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by insulin resistance at the level of skeletal muscle and fat tissue and muscle and liver, which leads to increase the level of glucose in the blood. This type of diabetes is not dependent on insulin, which affects adults or diabetes resistant ketosis, when the pancreas continues to produce insulin, but there is an imbalance in insulin receptor cells that does not respond to insulin, causing improper hepatic glucose metabolism. Dialysis is considered one of the most important strategies to deal with the decline of the kidneys from the performance of their vital functions, which leads to renal failure. Dialysis is an artificial mechanism by which nitrogen waste and liquid and toxic solvents are removed from the circulation. When the kidneys fail to do this properly, in all types of dialysis; blood is reacted with an artificial solution similar to human plasma and through a semipermeable membrane occurs the diffusion of liquids and dissolved substances. lt involves access to the blood circulation through either a venous or central venous artery catheter or a vaccination where the patient's blood pumping occurs through a blood removal device where two-way diffusion of atoms between dialysis and blood is allowed through a semipermeable membrane. Subjects: From the beginning of December 2018 to the end of May 2019, 158 individuals residents of Najaf and Karbala Governorates were included to participate in the current study. Method: Sandwich-ELISA technique was applied to estimate levels of Nitric Oxide, Superoxide Dismutase, GR in the sera samples of the study groups using kits that prepared by Elabscience Company, China. Results: The results of the present study recorded significant difference (p < 0.05) of NO, SOD, and GR concentrations measured in the samples of the two study groups. When comparing male and female subgroups implicitly, a significant difference (p = 0.000) of NO levels was recorded when patients of both genders compared together. Similarly, the study recorded a significant variation (p = 0.001) for NO levels when comparison was carried out between the males in the study subgroups, on the other side no such result was observed (p = 0.062) when the two women subgroups were compared together. The current study found a high significant difference (p = 0.000) when SOD in the samples of diabetic females was compared with their healthy partners in the control group, the highest mean of SOD (1.360 ng/ml) was observed in the group of diabetic females who underwent hemodialysis during the completion of the current work, while the highest concentration of a separate sample (4.493ng/ml) was found in a 66-year-old patient who had diabetes at the age of 35 and undergoing hemodialysis only for the second time. The study indicated a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the concentration of GR in males compared to females in both study groups. The highest mean of GR (1.561ng/ml) was observed in the group of healthy males, while the highest concentration of a separate sample (2.532ng/ml) was found in a 46-year-old patient who had diabetes at the age of 35 and undergoing hemodialysis since 6 months. In the patients group, positively significant correlation (r = 0.697 at p < 0.005) was observed for the concentrations of NO as well as GR to the age. More than four-fifths (92 of the total patient cases, at p < 0.005) of people with diabetes and dialysis as an adjunct to kidney function showed a positive correlation between NO and GR concentrations, while the relationship was shown to be negative between SOD and GR.
Renal Failure, Dialysis, T2DM, NO, SOD, GR.