Cytotoxic effect of Ethanolic extracts of Andrographis echioides in human colon cancer cell Lines Via Apoptosis
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Colorectal cancer is one of the most common type of cancer and the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the globe. Resistance to chemotherapy limits the use of current chemotherapy agents and led to the search for alternative treatments. Plants contain various phytoconstituents, which are rich sources of antioxidants with free radical scavenging activities and able to protect healthy cells from processes that induces cancer. One such plant selected for the study is Andrographis echioides (L) Nees, highly prevalent in South Asian countries and is of high medicinal value.
To explore the anticancer attribute of ethanolic extract of whole plant of Andrographis echioides (EEAE) in Human Colon carcinoma using MTT Assay and DNA fragmentation test in HT 29 cell lines.
Materials and Methods
HT 29 cell line that simulates real colon tissue in vitro, was used in this study. The in vitro cytotoxic effect of EEAE on HT-29 cell line was estimated and compared with 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) by the MTT assay and DNA fragmentation assay. All experiments were performed in triplicates. The percentage cell viability at various concentrations 7.8μg/mL, 15.6 μg/mL, 31.2μg/mL, 62.5μg/mL, 125μg/mL, 250μg/mL, 500μg/mL and 1000μg/mL was studied and IC50 was calculated for both extracts and control.
The percentage cell viability was expressed as Mean ± Standard error of mean and comparison of the mean was done using one way ANOVA method. P value < 0.05 was considered to be significant.
The IC50 value of EEAE and 5-FU were found to be 125 and 15.6μg/ml respectively (P<0.05). DNA fragmentation assay showed the ladder formation with EEAE. There was no formation of ladder in the control group. This was in correlation with that of the results obtained in MTT assay.
This study revealed that ethanolic extract of whole plant of Andrographis echioides L. exhibited apoptotic activity that in turn induced cytotoxicity in HT-29 colon cancer cell lines.
Colon cancer, HT-29 cell line, Andrographis echioides, MTT assay, DNA fragmentation assay.