Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of different solvent extracts of Carthamus tinctorius flowers
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Carthamus tinctorius is an annual plant belonging to the Asteraceae family. It is known as safflower. It is cultivated in Southern Asia, North and South America. It contains many bioactive compounds for which it has the biological activities, involving antidiabetic, anticancer, antioxidant, anti-ageing, anticoagulant, hepatoprotective and anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antibacterial activities. The goal of this work is to identify the chemical constituents of safflower petals and to reveal their antimicrobial activities. The dried petals were extracted using three solvents, hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. Safflower was studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 78 compounds from the three extracts were defined, and it was indicated that the highest percentage in ethyl acetate extract go to 4′, 6-Dimethoxyisoflavonne-7-O-p-D-glucopyranoside (15.6%) and 7, 4′-dimethoxy-3-hydroxy flavone (8.17%). In methanol extract, the high percentage belongs to Ascorbic acid, per methyl-(25.16%), Papaverine (8.16%), Tetratricontane (5.99%). In contrast, Morin (14.06%) and Isolongiflol (22.67%) showed the highest concentration in hexane extract. The antibacterial activities of Carthamus tinctorius petals were evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus heamolyticus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by the disc diffusion method and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The results show that C. tinctorius has antimicrobial activity against all the tested bacteria with diverse degrees. The highest antibacterial activity was achieved by ethyl acetate extract against all gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria involved.
Carthamus tinctorius, Safflower, GC-MS, Antimicrobial activity, Plant extract.