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Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology
Year : 2019, Volume : 12, Issue : 9
First page : ( 4575) Last page : ( 4577)
Print ISSN : 0974-3618. Online ISSN : 0974-360X.
Article DOI : 10.5958/0974-360X.2019.00786.8

Alternatives to In vivo Experiments – A Pandect

Xavier Fatima Grace1, Balu Anbarasan1, Seetharaman Shanmuganathan1, Lakshmikandhan Akila2,*, Lawrence Arul Amutha Elizabeth2

1Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Sri Ramachandra Institute of Higher Education and Research, Porur, Chennai-600116

2Department of Pharmacology, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chromepet, Chennai, 600044, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research

*Corresponding Author E-mail: drakilasenthil@gmail.com

Online published on 24 December, 2019.


The use of animals for research has increased with increase in advancement of Research & Development in science. Year after year millions of animals are used for carrying out experiments. Since long time it has been a debating issue about the pain, distress and death underwent by the animals during scientific experiments. Beyond ethical considerations to carry out animal experiments, requirement of skilled man power, protocol which are time consuming and high cost are other disadvantages faced. Thus, to overcome these difficulties various alternatives to animal testing have been utilised. Reduction, Refinement and Replacement is applied for use of animals in laboratory. Various alternative methods and organisms are used to overcome the ethical issues and difficulties faced with use of animal experiments. This review is focused to elaborate an insight towards the use of alternative methods and their advantages over animal experimentation such that we can minimize the use of animals in scientific experiments.



In vitroIn vivoIn silico, alternative methods, animal experiments.


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