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Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology
Year : 2019, Volume : 12, Issue : 7
First page : ( 3197) Last page : ( 3205)
Print ISSN : 0974-3618. Online ISSN : 0974-360X.
Article DOI : 10.5958/0974-360X.2019.00537.7

Emerging Role of GABA Receptor: A Review

Nagarathna P.K.M.*, Rehman Ayesha, Tiwari Pasupati Nath

Department of Pharmacology, Karnataka College of Pharmacy, Bangalore

*Corresponding Author E-mail: pnbabu2924@gmail.com

Online published on 24 December, 2019.

Abstract

GABAA receptor subunit genes GABRB3, GABRA5, and GABRG3 located on chromosome 15q11-q13 have been implicated in the etiology of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). This study intended to investigate the possible role of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) present in GABRB3 (rs2081648 and rs1426217), GABRA5 (rs35586628), and GABRG3 (rs208129) genes in ASD susceptibility and symptom-based and developmental phenotypes of ASD in Chinese Han children and adolescents. Anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) continue to be the mainstay of epilepsy treatment, but the benefits of seizure control need to be weighed carefully against possible adverse effects, which can include behavioral problems and psychiatric disorders. In this paper, the associations between AEDs and psychosis, depression and behavioral changes are reviewed. Depression seems to be linked with AEDs potentiating GABAergic neurotransmission in patients with limbic system abnormalities such as hippocampal sclerosis. By rapidly modulating neuronal excitability, neurosteroids regulate physiological processes, such as responses to stress and development. Excessive stress affects their biosynthesis and causes an imbalance in cognition and emotions. The progesterone derivative, allopregnanolone (Allo) enhances extra synaptic and postsynaptic inhibition by directly binding at GABAA receptors, and thus, positively and allosterically modulates the function of GABA. Stress-induced down-regulation of neurosteroid biosynthesis and changes in GABAA receptor subunit expression offer a putative biomarker axis to develop new PTSD treatments. The advantage of stimulating Allo biosynthesis relies on the variety of neurosteroidogenic receptors to be targeted, including TSPO and endocannabinoid receptors. Furthermore, stress favours a GABAA receptor subunit composition with higher sensitivity for Allo.

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Keywords

GABAA, GABRB3, GABRA5, Neurosteroids, Allo.

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