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Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology
Year : 2019, Volume : 12, Issue : 5
First page : ( 2439) Last page : ( 2442)
Print ISSN : 0974-3618. Online ISSN : 0974-360X.
Article DOI : 10.5958/0974-360X.2019.00409.8

A Comparison Study of Nefopam ketamine, Tramadol ketamine and Xylazine ketamine anesthesia in Rabbit

Albozachri Jassim M. Khalaf1, AL-Tomah Hayder M.1, Wali Osamah N.2, Jameel Yasser J.1

1College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Kerbala, Karbala, Iraq

2College of Nursing, University of Misan, Misan, Iraq

Online published on 8 August, 2019.


This study were preformed to evaluate and compare between three anesthetic regime, using injectable anesthesia (Nefopam/ketamine), (Tramadol/Ketamine) and (xylazine/ketamine) in anesthetic protocols in rabbits. Eighteen adult local breed rabbits from both sexes weighing (1.1–1.8) Kg. were divided equally into three groups they were housed indoor to accommodate the place of experiments. The following physiological parameters (heart rate, respiratory rate and rectal body temperature) were recorded before the intramuscular injection of the drugs for each group (zero time) as a self group. Group (A) were injected tramadol hydrochloride 10% 15 mg/kg B.W as premedication, after 10min. Ketamine hydrochloride 10% at a dose of 10 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg B.W., group (B) were injected Xylazine 2%10mg/kg B.W. as premedication, after 10min. the animals were injected as same in group (A). and group (C) were injected Nefopam 2% mg/kg B.W. as premedication, after 10min. the animals were injected as same in group (A) and (B). Stages of anesthesia (induction time, surgical time and recovery time) and physiologic parameters (heart rate, respiratory rate and Rectal body temperature) were evaluated. The most significant changes were reported in group (B) which useful regimen clinically for anesthetize rabbits due to long surgical time.



Nefopam, ketamine, Tramadol, anaesthesia.


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