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Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology
Year : 2019, Volume : 12, Issue : 5
First page : ( 2233) Last page : ( 2240)
Print ISSN : 0974-3618. Online ISSN : 0974-360X.
Article DOI : 10.5958/0974-360X.2019.00372.X

Comparison of Maternal Nutrition in Second Trimester and Preconception Period: A Cross-Sectional Study

Farazmand Behnood1, Vosough Farnaz2,*, Vosough Fereshteh3

1MD, Resident of General Surgery, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2MD, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

3MD, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

*Corresponding Author E-mail: farnaz.vosough@iran.ir

Online published on 8 August, 2019.


Background and Objectives

Pregnancy is one of the most important moments in a woman's life. Maternal nutrition plays a critical role during this period. The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the nutritional status of pregnant women referring to the health centers of Tehran University of Medical Sciences in the second trimester and preconception period.

Materials and Methods

In this cross-sectional study, 99 cases in the second trimester were chosen from the health centers located in the southern district of Tehran during 2015 to 2016. A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was utilized to determine the nutritional status of pregnant women in the second trimester and the preconception period by interviewing and using data files. All the analyses were performed by SPSS software (version 15). P-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant.


In this study, the mean age of the subjects was 27.7±5.8 (age range: 18–48). The comparison of 18 nutrients showed that the consumption of 13 nutrients was significantly increased in the second trimester, compared to that in preconception period. The nutrients include calories (P<0.001), protein (P=0.007), carbohydrate (P<0.001), fat (P<0.001), vitamin A (P<0.001), vitamin B1 (P<0.001), vitamin B2 (P=0.026), vitamin B3 (P=0.001), vitamin B6 (P<0.001), vitamin E (P<0.001), Copper (Cu) (P<0.001), Iron (Fe) (P<0.003), and Zinc (Zn) (P<0.002).


The requirement for calories, protein, carbohydrate, fat, and most of the nutrients, such as vitamin A, C, B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, Cu, Fe, and Zn were provided in the second trimester. However, the requirement for vitamin E intake was not provided in the second trimester. The improvement of maternal knowledge regarding nutrition would lead to healthy food choices, which can increase maternal and fetal health and decrease long-term complications.



Foodstuffs, Nutrition, Nutrients, Pregnancy.


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