A Prospective Observational Study on assessment of risk factor associated with diabetic retinopathy in patients diagnosed with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in south Indian population
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Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) appears to be the most common cause of blindness worldwide. The objective of the study was to assess the risk factors that would increase the onset or progression of the microvascular complication caused due to type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
A prospective observational study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital, Chennai. The enrolled patients based on their inclusion and exclusion criteria were followed and the information collected includes their demographic data and lab investigations such as, Hypertension, HbA1c, and Dyslipedimia. The data observed was analyzed with SPSS V20.0 to find significance among the risk factors of Diabetic Retinopathy.
Among the study population of 230, risk factor was analysed for occurrence of Diabetic Retinopathy, Female patient was more affected with Diabetic Retinopathy compared to male 112 and it showed the P-value of 0.001. Most of the people who have Diabetic Retinopathy fall under the age category of 40 to 60 years. The descriptive statistics for age showed the following results Mean ± SD (48.16±10.29) for patients without Diabetic Retinopathy and Mean ± SD (56.24±7.35) for patients with Diabetic Retinopathy. It showed a P-value of 0.004. A significant correlation was seen between the duration of Diabetes Mellitus and the occurrence of Diabetic Retinopathy, showing a P-value of 0.001. Presence of Hypertension also seemed to increase the occurrence of Diabetic Retinopathy, showing a highly significant P-value of 0.001. Presence of Hyperlipidemia had no correlation with the occurrence of Diabetic Retinopathy. A significant level of correlation was seen between the level of glycated haemoglobin and the occurrence of Diabetic Retinopathy showing a P-value of 0.001.
Our study concluded that duration of diabetes, presence of hypertension, presence of dyslipedimia and high level of HbA1c has a significant relationship as a risk factor for the onset and progression of Diabetic Retinopathy (DR).
Risk Factors, Dyslipedimia, Hypertension, HbA1c, Diabetes, Retinopathy.