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Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology
Year : 2018, Volume : 11, Issue : 7
First page : ( 2961) Last page : ( 2964)
Print ISSN : 0974-3618. Online ISSN : 0974-360X.
Article DOI : 10.5958/0974-360X.2018.00546.2

Hoarseness In Iranian Patients With Nonerosive Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: A Case Control Study

Yaseri Hashem Fakhre1,2,*, Asadi Mahboobe3

1Gastroenterology, Research Center for Gastroenterology and Liver Disease, Firoozgar Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2Department of Internal Medicine, Firoozgar Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

3Departement of Otolaryngology, Taleghani Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

*Corresponding Author E-mail: hfyaseri@chmail.ir

Online published on 31 October, 2018.



The concept of laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) that causes aerodigestive symptoms has gained increasing attention in the recent years. Reflux into the oesophagus is successfully detected by multichannel intraluminal impedance monitoring (MII/pH). The present study aimed at determining the frequency of hoarseness in Iranian patients with nonerosive gastroesophageal reflux disease (NERD).


This case control study was conducted on 425 patients aged 11 to 65 years, with dyspepsia and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), diagnosed based on the questionnaire and esophaggastrodoudenoscopy findings. The case group included 345 patients with nonerosive reflux disease (NERD), and the control group included 80 dyspeptic patients without gastroesophageal reflux disease. Esophageal multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH (MII-pH) monitoring was done for 345 of the patients who did not have esophageal injuries (NERD).


Hoarseness was more prevalent in NERD patients (33%) than in those patients with dyspepsia (8.75%) (OR: 5.15, 95%CI: 1.9–13.6, P = 0.008). Moreover, of the 345 patients, 147 (42.6%) were positive for esophageal acid exposure time (EAET).


The present study revealed that hoarseness was more prevalent in patients with nonerosive reflux disease (NERD) than in those with dyspepsia, moreover, nearly half of the patients with NERD were EAET positive. Thus, collaboration between gastroenterologists and otorhinolaryngologists could improve the the quality of life of patients with GERD and may also help the early diagnosis of the laryngeal symptoms.



GERD, Heartburn, EER, NERD, LPR.


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