Analysis of Inorganic Ions, Especially Thiocyanates, as Biomarkers of Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Their Relationship in Human Saliva
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In this study, we analyzed the presence of thiocyanate in saliva according to exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and evaluated the correlations between SCN, fluoride, chloride, and phosphate.
Saliva sampling and dietary analysis were performed for 5 days in non-smokers and smokers. Collected saliva was centrifuged at 2,200 rpm for 8 minutes and syringe-filtered. Spearman correlation analysisand Mann Whitney U tests were performed SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science 21.0, Chicago, USA). Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05.
The concentration of SCN was 0.34 ± 0.16 mM (<LOD-0.67) in the non-smoking group and 0.97 ± 1.05 mM (0.18–3.92) in the smoking group (p <0.05). The concentrations of F-, Cl-, and PO43- in saliva were 0.00088, 11.98, and 1.98 mM for non-smokers and 0.15, 12.94, and 3.27 mM for smokers, respectively. Regarding the correlation with SCN, the value of Cl-/SCN in non-smokers and the values of PO43-/SCN and Cl-/SCN in smokers were high. The concentration of SCN in the smoker group was higher than that in the non-smoker group, and the HPLC analysis method and the saliva pretreatment method used in this study provided objective information useful for evaluation of ETS exposure.
Smoking has a significant effect on the components of saliva because the concentrations of SCN and inorganic anions are higher in smoker group than in non-smoker group.
Biomarker, environmental tobacco smoke, HPLC, saliva, thiocyanate.