Anticonvulsant effect of Bacopa monnieri extracts on Catecholamine metabolism during PTZ-induced Epilepsy in different brain regions of Albino Rat
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In the modern era, Epilepsy is one of the most prevalent serious neurological disorders, affecting 0.5 to 1.0% of the world's population. Epileptic seizures are paroxysmal clinical events arising from neuronal hyper-excitability and hypersynchrony of the cerebral cortex, either locally (partial seizures) or diffusely in both hemispheres (generalized seizures). The agitated neuronal activity that occurs during a seizure is caused by a sudden imbalance between the inhibitory and excitatory signals in the brain with glutamate, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), noradrenaline, serotonin, and dopamine. Since long term usage of antiepileptic drugs cause high incidence of pharmacoresistence and untoward side effects, attention has been paid in recent years to screen bioactive compounds from natural medicinal plants for treatment of several neurological disorders including Epilepsy. Keeping in view of relative importance of natural medicinal plants, the present study is mainly focused to characterize the anti-convulsant effect of Bacopa monnieri (BM), an Indian herb which is being extensively used in Ayurvedic treatments related to neurological complications. The present study was designed to assess the neurotoxicity of PTZ on the metabolism of Biogenic amines (Nor-epinephrine, Epinephrine, Dopamine, Serotonin) in different brain regions (Cerebral cortex, Cerebellum, Pons medulla and Hippocampus) of rat and explore the possible antiepileptic effect of different extracts (Ethanol, n-Hexane, Chloroform, Ethyl acetate, n-Butanol and Aqueous extracts) of BM in comparison with Diazepam (DZ) (Reference control). PTZ-Induced epilepsy caused significant decrease in all the catecholamine levels in all brain regions. On par with Diazepam pretreatment, different extracts of BM except aqueous extract (AE) significantly increased the monoamine contents in all the regions of brain. Mono amine oxidase (MAO) activity levels showed elevation in different brain regions of rat during PTZ-induced epilepsy which was reversed in epileptic animals pretreated with different extracts except AE and DZ. These findings suggest that BM causes perceptible changes in the biogenic amine metabolism as one of the major facets of its anticonvulsant activity. Hence, BM extract can be effectively used in the treatment of Epilepsy and other related neurological disorders.
Epilepsy, Bacopa monnieri, Pentylene tetrazole, Monoamines, Neuroprotection.