A Comprehensive review on Biomarkers for assessing Diabetic Kidney Disease
*Corresponding Author E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Diabetic nephropathy affects the body's ability to grab the energy found in food. Futher it leads to major complications, where Diabetic nephropathy is seen as one of the major, and dangerous complication of this disorder. Effective and early diagnosis is of critically helpful. Diagnostic tests must be developed which must be more convenient and reliable than those currently used, would be highly beneficial. Urine is used as diagnostic medium for easy and non-invasive detection of biomarkers. This review briefly explains few of most relevant urinary biomarkers that are used to monitor the development and progression of Diabetes with its complications. The mortality and morbidity ratio are increasing in greater proportion, the consequences are expected to be at higher risk in near future. In particular, biomarkers of renal dysfunction such as transferrin, type IV collagen and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosamide are more sensitive than urinary albumin, in the detection of development nephropathy and risk regarding of cardiovascular disease. Inflammatory mediators including tumour necrosis factor-α, transforming growth factor-β, vascular endothelial growth factor and Monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1(MCP-1), Oxidative Stress Markers such as 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine and Immunoglobulin M, Podocyte, Cystatin C, Ceruloplasmin are useful biomarkers for diagnosis or monitoring of diabetic complications, particularly kidney disease. Abnormal excretion of 8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine results in the indication of increased systemic level of DNA damage in non-insulin dependent diabetic patients. A comprehensive literature search has been carried out in PubMed, Google scholar and articles pertaining to urinary biomarkers assessing diabetic kidney disease were selected for review.
Diabetes, diabetic kidney disease, urinary bio markers, nephropathy, dialysis.