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Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology
Year : 2017, Volume : 10, Issue : 6
First page : ( 1703) Last page : ( 1707)
Print ISSN : 0974-3618. Online ISSN : 0974-360X.
Article DOI : 10.5958/0974-360X.2017.00301.8

Pupil to limbus diameter ratio (pld ratio), olfactory sensitivity and cognition in females with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A case control study

Regi Riya1, Sailesh Kumar Sai1, Mukkadan J.K.2,*

1Department of Physiology, Little Flower Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Angamaly, Kerala, India.

2Department of Research, Little Flower Medical Research Centre, Angamaly, Kerala, India.

*Corresponding Author E-mail: evergreen_revan@rediffmail.com

Online published on 22 September, 2017.


The present study was undertaken to observe the Pupil to Limbus Diameter Ratio (PLD Ratio), Olfactory Sensitivity and Cognition in females with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Thirty females with controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus and thirty age matched healthy females (controls) were included in the study after obtaining written, informed consent. PLD Ratio was measured by two-box method. Blast injection method was used to measure the olfactory sensitivity. Digit Symbol Substitution Test, Letter Cancellation Test, Immediate Word Recall, Immediate Object Recall, Mini Mental State Examination were used to assess the cognition. Height and weight of the diabetic patients is higher than control group participants (P<0.05). No significant difference was observed in olfactory sensitivity, Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSS), Letter Cancellation Test (LCT), and Immediate Word Recall (IWR) scores Immediate Object Recall (IOR), Mini mental state examination (MMSE), pupil to limbus diameter (PLD) ratio of right and left eye of diabetic patients and healthy controls. We have not observed significant difference in PLD ratio, olfactory sensitivity and cognitive functions among diabetic females and healthy age matched females.



Pupil to Limbus Diameter Ratio, Olfactory Sensitivity, Diabetes, Cognition.


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