Abundance, Diversity and Prospects of Marine Fungi and Biotechnological Applications
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The ocean is considered to be a great reservoir of biodiversity. Microbial communities in marine environments are ecologically relevant as intermediaries of energy, and play an important role in nutrient regeneration cycles as decomposers of dead and decaying organic matter. In this sense, marine-derived fungi can be considered as a source of enzymes of industrial and/or environmental interest. Fungal strains isolated from different substrates, such as invertebrates, decaying wood, seawater, sediments, and mangrove detritus, have been reported to be producers of hydrolytic and/or oxidative enzymes, with alginate lyase, amylase, cellulase, chitinase, glucosidase, inulinase, keratinase, ligninase, lipase, nuclease, phytase, protease, and xylanase being among the enzymes produced by fungi of marine origin. Every organism in ecosystem naturally dependent other resources as their food that can be living things or non-living things (e.g. Plants dependent energy from sunlight to produce organic compounds and animal dependent energy from organic compounds). This phenomenon creates the food web in the biosphere of the earth. Among these, fungi contribute the major role as decomposer, parasitic and symbiotic association.
Fungi, organic compounds, food web, decomposer, environmental pollutants, industrial microbiology.