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Year : 2020, Volume : 10, Issue : 2
First page : ( 126) Last page : ( 139)
Print ISSN : 2249-4669. Online ISSN : 2249-4677.
Article DOI : 10.5958/2249-4677.2020.00024.9

Molecular diversity and distribution of phytoplasma diseases in Iran

Zamharir Maryam Ghayeb*

Plant Diseases DepartmentIranian Research Institute of Plant protection, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran

*Corresponding author e-mail: Maryam Ghayeb Zamharir (zamharir2005@yahoo.com)

Online published on 10 February, 2021.


Numerous plants diseases have been reported over the last 20 years in Iran associated with phytoplasma presence. Phytoplasmas are wall-less insect-vectored prokaryotes detected in a wide range of plant species including fruit trees, some crop species, vegetables, ornamentals and weeds. In Iran phytoplasmas enclosed in 10 ribosomal groups have been identified. Peanut witches’ broom (16SrII), “stolbur” (16SrXII), clover proliferation (16SrVI), pigeon pea witches’ broom (16SrIX) and aster yellows (16SrI) are the major groups detected in more than 80 plant host species throughout Iran. Severe epidemic diseases including Mexican lime witches’ broom and alfalfa witches’ broom are the most important, while emerging diseases include grapevine decline, date palm yellows, olive witches’ broom, cucumber yellows, pistachio witches' broom, while others are common diseases such as sesame phyllody, cucumber phyllody, lettuce phyllody, apple proliferation, apricot yellows. A comprehensive information about phytoplasma identity, host plants and diseases in Iran is reported.



Plant diseases, Symptomatology, Ribosomal grouping.


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