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Journal of Research in Medical Education & Ethics
Year : 2012, Volume : 2, Issue : 2
First page : ( 147) Last page : ( 152)
Print ISSN : 2231-671X. Online ISSN : 2231-6728.
Article DOI : 10.5958/j.2231-671X.2.2.036

Comparison of Quantitative and Qualitative Cytokine Response to the Seasonal and 2009H1N1 Influenza A Infections

Al-Nimer Marwan S.M.1,*, Mahmood Majid Mohammed2, Jasem Meroj Ahmed3

1Professor, Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Al-Mustansiriya University, P.O. Box 14132, Baghdad (Iraq)

2Assistant Professor (Immunology), Department of Biology, College of Science, Al-Mustansiriya University, P.O. Box 14132, Baghdad (Iraq)

3Assistant lecturer, Department of Biology, College of Science, Al-Mustansiriya University, P.O. Box 14132, Baghdad (Iraq)

*Corresponding author's email: alnimermarwan@ymail.com



Cytokines play a role in controlling influenza virus infections. These cytokines are involved in the symptoms of swine influenza.


This study aimed to look for the differences in immune response between patients infected with seasonal influenza A and 2009 H1N1 influenza A.

Setting and Design

An observational study.

Materials and methods

Patients with influenza virus infection attending the Al-Yarmouk teaching hospital during Fall 2009 for diagnosis of 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus infection were admitted in the study. The diagnosis of H1N1 infection was confirmed by positive real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRTPCR) testing of sputum, oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal swabs specimens. A total number of 9 patients (2009 H1N1 group), 13 patients (seasonal influenza A group), and 10 healthy subjects (control group) were admitted in this study. Serum values of interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleulin-1β (IL-1β) and interferon-γ (INF-γ) were determined.

Statistical Analysis

The significance of the differences between groups was assessed using unpaired two tailed Student's t test and 95% confidence interval.


The serum level of IL-2 in patients infected with seasonal influenza A was higher than corresponding healthy subjects and 2009 H1N1 influenza A. No specific changes in serum (IL-1β) in patients with influenza A infection were observed. The mean serum INF-γ was significantly higher in patients infected with 2009 H1N1 influenza A, but not in seasonal influenza A, than corresponding healthy subjects.


The human cytokines response against 2009H1N1 influenza A differed from that seasonal influenza A. Serum IL-2 level was significantly increased in seasonal influenza A compared with healthy subjects or 2009 H1N1 influenza A.



2009 H1N1 influenza, Cytokines, IL-2, IL-1β, INF- γ.


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