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Year : 2021, Volume : 21, Issue : 2
First page : ( 132) Last page : ( 142)
Print ISSN : 0972-5687. Online ISSN : 0974-083X. Published online : 2021  25.
Article DOI : 10.5958/0974-083X.2021.00074.1

Changes in Ocular Morphology and Protein Levels in Tissues upon Impact of Electromagnetic Field Radiation in Rats

Kasukurthi Bhushanam1, Sharma Ved Parkash2, Ramotar Dindial3, Poda Sudhakar4*

1Ph.D Research Scholar, Department of Biotechnology, Acharya Nagarjuna University, GunturAndhra Pradesh

2Senior Scientific Officer (Retired), Department of Zoology, Panjab University, Chandigarh.

3Professor, College of Health and Life Sciences, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, LAS building, Education City, Doha, Qatar.

4Assistant Professor, Department of Biotechnology, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh

*Corresponding Author: Dr. Sudhakar Poda, Assistant Professor, Department of Biotechnology, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh Contact : +91 90001-22929, Email: sudhakarpodha@gmail.com

Online Published on 25 April, 2022.

Received:  23  ,  2021; :  16  November,  2021; Accepted:  21  November,  2021.



The main effect of electromagnetic fields is to heat body tissues. There is no doubt that short-term exposure to very high levels of electromagnetic fields can be detrimental to health and all types of natural lives.

Materials and Methods:

In this study, we investigated the effects of mobile hotspot impact on biochemical reactions in the brain, kidneys, and testicles. Male wistar rats (n=6) treated with EMFr 2300 MHz for 1 hour for six days per week for a total of 30, 50 and 70 days in individual groups. Tissue total protein levels and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) determined using a microplate reader. Histological changes in the optic nerve and retina were examined for internal cell morphology using light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).


Retinal rods, muscle fibers, axons, optic nerve microglia, astrocytes, myelin sheath with collagen of pia mater destructive structures were observed. Wallerian types of degenerated axons were observed in the optic nerve. In control animals, at any age, there was no difference in the tissues of ALP and total protein levels, but these increased significantly in EMFr exposed rats, indicating that EMFr has an effect on ALP and protein.


There was change to the retina and optic nerves in the outer nuclear layer upon longer exposure of the rats to EMFr when compared to those in age-matched controls. This model can be used to understand EMFr morphological changes in humans, as some of these changes mimic the effects of low-level radiation in the eyes and deviations in enzymatic parameters.



Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Electromagnetic field radiation (EMFr), Histology, Morphology, Optic nerve, Retina.


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