Diabetes and Periodontal Disease: A Two-Way Relationship
Dr Singh Baljeet1, Dr Gandhi Naureen2,*, Dr Grover Deepak3
1Professor & HOD, Bhojia dental college & Hsp, Bhud (Baddi), H.P.
2pg student, Bhojia dental college & Hsp, Bhud (Baddi), H.P.
3Reader, National dental college and hospital, DeraBassi
*Address for Corresspondance:-Dr. Naureen Gandhi Pg student, Bhojia dental college & Hsp, Bhud (Baddi), H.P.
Online published on 9 October, 2017.
Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of the supporting tissues of the teeth caused by specific micro-organisms or group of specific micro-organisms, resulting in progressive destruction of the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone with pocket formation, recession or both.1 Periodontal infections can adversely affect the systemic health with manifestations such as coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes, preterm labor, low-birth weight delivery, and respiratory disease.1 Severe periodontitis often coexists with diabetes and is considered to be the sixth complication of the disease, as both type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients show a three-to four fold increased risk of periodontitis. 2
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease characterized by dysregulation of carbohydrate, protein, and lipid metabolism. The primary feature of this disorder is elevation of blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia), resulting from either a defect in insulin secretion from the pancreas, a change in insulin action, or both.2 Uncontrolled diabetes (chronic hyperglycemia) is associated with several long-term complications, including microvascular diseases (retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, etc.), macrovascular diseases (cardiovascular, cerebrovascular), an increased susceptibility to infections, and poor wound healing. 1
Diabetes mellitus is an extremely important disease from a periodontal standpoint. Severe periodontal disease often coexists with severe diabetes mellitus. Diabetes is a risk factor for severe periodontal disease. Severe periodontal disease increases the severity of diabetes mellitus and complicates metabolic control. Periodontitis could have a negative effect on glycaemic control. The association between diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease is therefore considered to be bidirectional: diabetes as a risk factor for periodontitis and periodontitis as a possible severity for diabetes. Infact, aggressive periodontitis is recognized as the sixth complication of diabetes.3
Henceforth, this article focuses on the bidirectional relationship between diabetes and periodontitis.