Berberine: An Antihypoglycemic Alkaloid
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The term diabetes mellitus describes a metabolic disorder of multiple aetiology characterised by chronic hyperglycaemia with disturbances of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action or both. The effects of diabetes mellitus include long-term damage, dysfunction and failure of various organs. Diabetes mellitus may present with characteristic symptoms such as thirst, polyuria, blurring of vision and weight loss. In its most severe forms, ketoacidosis or a non-ketotic hyperosmolar state may develop and lead to stupor, coma and, in the absence of effective treatment, death. Often symptoms are not severe, or may be absent, and consequently hyperglycaemia sufficient to cause pathological and functional changes may be present for a long time before the diagnosis is made. The long-term effects of diabetes mellitus include progressive development of the specific complications of retinopathy with potential blindness, nephropathy that may lead to renal failure and/or neuropathy with risk of foot ulcers, amputation, Charcot joints and features of autonomic dysfunction, including sexual dysfunction. People with diabetes are at increased risk of cardiovascular, peripheral vascular and cerebrovascular disease. Several pathogenetic processes are involved in the development of diabetes. These include processes that destroy the β cells of the pancreas with consequent insulin deficiency, and others that result in resistance to insulin action. The abnormalities of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism are due to deficient action of insulin on target tissues resulting from insensitivity or lack of insulin. In this, they are suggesting to use plant-based medicinal products because of their low cost and no side effects. There are many anti-diabetic plants, in all of them Tinospora cordifolia are mainly used because of its fast growing propagative quality and it also contains a high quantity of Berberine, Berberine is an isoquinolene alkaloid that has significant benefit for treating diabetes and it is also having many other medicinal properties, which are still exploits by many researchers. This article has been shown many medicinal properties of Beberine mainly emphasing on diabetes mellitus.
Diabetes mellitus, Anti-diabetic, Medicinal plants, Isoquinolene alkaloid, Tinospora cordifolia, Berberine.