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Journal of Camel Practice and Research
Year : 2020, Volume : 27, Issue : 1
First page : ( 39) Last page : ( 47)
Print ISSN : 0971-6777. Online ISSN : 2277-8934.
Article DOI : 10.5958/2277-8934.2020.00006.5

Seasonal studies on morphology and immunohistochemical localisation of s-100 and alpha smooth muscle actin proteins in poll glands of dromedary camel

Ibrahim Z.H.1,2,*, Al-Kheraije K.A.1, El-Tigani-Asil E.A.3

1College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Qassim University, Buraidah, 51452, Saudi Arabia

2Permanent Address: College of Veterinary Medicine, Sudan University of Science and Technology, Khartoum, Sudan

3Department of Pathology and Sample Management, Abu Dhabi, UAE

*email: zarrougibrahim@hotmail.com

Online published on 30 April, 2020.


The two poll glands rest subcutaneously behind the ear of the dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius). Although they secrete a watery yellowish secretion with offensive odour during breeding seasons, their function is still largely unspecified. This study on camel poll glands morphology and immunoreactivity of S-100 and alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) proteins during breeding and non-breeding seasons might shed some light on their function. During breeding season the gland was larger in size and darker in colour and its secretion increased compared to non-breeding season. No significant change was observed in the alveolar luminal diameter during seasonal reproductive cycle (P>0.05). However, alveolar diameter and epithelial height was significantly (P<0.05) increased during breeding season together with significantly increased inter-alveolar tissue thickness during non-breeding season. While S-100 reacted positively in the alveolar epithelium and inter-alveolar tissue, α-SMA reaction was negative in the alveolar epithelium and positive in the alveolar myoepithelial cells, smooth muscles and blood vessels. S-100 and α-SMA positive immunoreactivity increased during breeding season compared to non-breeding season. These results suggest that the poll gland secretory activity is correlated with male camel seasonal sexual activity. Moreover, S-100 and α-SMA are suggested to regulate cellular and muscular functions in the poll glands.



Anatomy, camel, histology, immunohistochemistry, poll gland, reproductive activity.


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