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Journal of Animal Research
Year : 2020, Volume : 10, Issue : 1
First page : ( 91) Last page : ( 93)
Print ISSN : 2249-5290. Online ISSN : 2277-940X.

Urine and Milk of Dairy Animals as an Indicator of Hydrofluorosis

Raina Shikha*, Dua Kirti, Singh Sikhtejinder, Chhabra Sushma

Department of Veterinary Medicine, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana, India

*Corresponding author: S Raina; E-mail: shikharaina2009@gmail.com

Online published on 28 May, 2020.


The South-Western region of Punjab is endemic for hydrofluorosis and the livestock consuming fluoride rich water exhibit dental mottling and skeletal fluorosis. The present study was conducted in fluoritic areas of Mansa district of Punjab with an aim to find out the concentration of fluoride in urine and milk of dairy animals in relation to varying levels of fluoride concentration in drinking water of fluorotic areas and non fluoritic areas. For this, eight urine samples and six milk samples were collected from livestock consuming water having fluoride concentration upto 8 ppm. Urinary and milk F level was significantly high in dairy animals from the fluorotic area, ranging from 10 to 30 mg/l and 0.4 to 0.8mg/l respectively as compared to animals from non fluorotic area that varied from 3–4 mg/l F in urine and 0.04 to 0.08mg/l F in milk.



Fluoride, urine, milk, hydrofluorosis.


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