Current status of leptospirosis in India in animals and humans
1Division of Bacteriology & Mycology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar (U.P.)
Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic problem in many countries of the world, affecting a large animal and human population. In India, the disease has been reported from most of states with a higher prevalence recorded in Southern States viz; Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Kamatka. and Andamana & Nicobar Islands both in animals & man. The disease in animals is usually characterized by fever, jaundice, abortions and other reproductive failures where as in humans systemic infection leading to multiorgan failure is common. Most common serovars responsible for the infection are Pomona, Canicola, Grippotyphosa, Australis, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Hardjo, Autumnalis, Hebdomadis etc. Almost all the livestock species are affected with the disease with wild animals and rodents serving as the carriers of the organisms which shed the pathogens in their urine in large numbers. The disease occurs throughout the year with a higher incidence being recorded in rainy seasons because the organisms have the capability to survive in the stagnant water, ponds & slow moving streams and in slightly alkaline water for a long time. Animals and man who are exposed to such contaminated water or Soil may acquire the infection through contact. Man is an accidental host, predisposed to the disease occupationally. The control of the disease is based on the segregation of the diseased animals and their treatment. Long term control depends on elimination of natural carriers and immunoprophylaxis. Currently a multivalent whole cell killed vaccine is available for the control of the disease in cattle, swine, sheep etc.
Diagnosis, Leptospirosis, Serology, Zoonosis.