Cryopreservation of goat semen: status and prospects
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Artificial insemination is the main tool for the rapid dissemination of valuable germplasm to improve the genetic quality of farm animals. Freezing of spermatozoa of all the domestic species, is a challenging because of variation in size, shape and lipid composition of sperm from different species. Thus, a cryopreservation protocol for semen of one animal species, may not be necessarily ideal for other. Diluents used for semen cryopreservation of domestic animals generally contained similar ingredients. In case of goats, interactions between seminal plasma and egg yolk are deleterious to sperm, however such condition is not observed in other animal species. Therefore, a thorough understanding of sperm freezing in goat will improve the cryosurvivability and fertility of sperm. In this review, various methods for processing, freezing and thawing of buck semen and their effects on survival and fertility of spermatozoa through fertility tests or artificial insemination have been elaborated. The areas discussed in the review include the biochemical characteristics of semen, dilution rate, various diluents, osmolality, buffering capacity and pH of diluent, penetrating and non-penetrating sugars added, the role of cryoprotectants, freezing, thawing of semen and traditional and recent additives used for improving the post thaw semen quality.
Cryopreservation, Diluent, Fertility, Goat, Sperm.