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Year : 2021, Volume : 11, Issue : 1
First page : ( 17) Last page : ( 22)
Print ISSN : 2231-3419. Online ISSN : 2454-7611. Published online : 2021  4.
Article DOI : 10.5958/2454-7611.2021.00003.5

A Review on CRISPR/ Cas9: A Molecular Approach to Genome Editing

Singh Manali1,*, Singh Dipti2, Suyal Deep Chandra3, Mehra Anshi4Student of B. Tech Biotechnology, Tripathi Varun5Assistant Professor, Bhasin Shruti6, Rai Pankaj Kumar7, Saxena Richa7, Ilyas Ashal7

1Department of Biotechnology, Invertis Institute of Engineering and Technology, Invertis University, Bareilly-243123, Uttar Pradesh, India

2Department of Genetics, ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-110012, India

3Department of Microbiology, Akal College of Basic Sciences, Eternal University, Baru Sahib, Sirmaur-173101, Himachal Pradesh, India

4Department of Biotechnology, Invertis Institute of Engineering and Technology, Invertis University, Bareilly-243123, Uttar Pradesh, India

5Department of Agriculture, Invertis University, Bareilly-243123, Uttar Pradesh, India

6Department of Biotechnology, Banasthali Vidyapith, Rajasthan-304022, India

7Department of Biotechnology, Invertis Institute of Engineering & Technology, Invertis University, Bareilly-243123, Uttar Pradesh, India

*Corresponding author email id: manalisingh15@gmail.com

Received:  20  November,  2020; Accepted:  22  ,  2021.

Abstract

CRISPR/Cas9 is an RNA-guided endonuclease that specifically targets a sequence of DNA by selecting bacteria, archaea enabling an organism to respond to with the utilization of nucleotide base pairing and eliminate invading genetic material. The CRISPR-Cas9 framework utilizes a single guide RNA (sgRNA) and the CRISPR-associated endonuclease Cas9 to produce double-strand breaks (DSBs) at the specific DNA site, consequently promoting genetic changes in view of non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) repair. Random insertion or deletion (indel) transformations caused by the CRISPR/Cas9 system generally happen proximate to the DSB site at 3 bp upstream of the protospacer adjacent motif (PAM). Cas9 based genome altering apparatus for presentation of site explicit double-stranded DNA break (DSB) and resulting mutagenesis in a plant, mouse and human cells It an efficient, fast, easy, and cheap technique. It is involved in the regulation of endogenous gene expression, live-cell labeling of chromosomal loci certain recent versions of it can also be employed in activation or repression of the desired gene in an organism through the gene expression regulation by fusing heterologous domains for modifying epigenetic signatures on histones or transcriptional activators and repressors CRISPR/Cas9 can also be utilized for treating various diseases. CRISPR/Cas9 is also very efficient in enhancing T cell therapy, and with the accumulation of more clinical data; efficacy and safety of CRISPR-based therapy will be utilized in coming years for treating many diseases. CRISPR/Cas9’s requirement of 5 ‘-NGG-3 ‘ PAMjust next to 20 nucleotide DNA target sequence, where it can only recognize NGG PAM site, reduces and limits its the effectiveness of genome editing.

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Keywords:

CRISPR/Cas9, Genome editing, SgRNA, PAM sequences.

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