Physico-Chemical Characteristics of inorganic constituent in Alluvium of Gomti basin and its health effects-A case study from Lucknow and Unnao district, Uttar Pradesh
The alluvial soils of Gomti basin, parts of Lucknow and Unnao districts, Uttar Pradesh show presence of inorganic constituent viz, fluoride varying from 0.2mg/litre to 4.0mg/litre (ppm) in Older Alluvial soil (ultisol) and Newer Alluvial soil (Inceptisols). Besides fluoride, substantial higher concentrations of Nitrate <1.0mg/litre to 246 mg/litre is also observed in the samples. The study is leased on water samples collected from 35 locations in and around of Lucknow and Unnnao. Out of 35 ground water samples 17 samples were collected from urban areas, 16 ground water sample from rural areas and two samples from river water. The present study focused on quality of ground water in rural and urban areas. Geologically the area forms a parts of middle Ganga plain and is covered by alluvial deposits of quaternary age which is composed of older and newer alluvium.
Twenty four physico-chemical parameters namely pH, specific conductance, carbonate, bicarbonate, Chloride, fluoride, Nitrate, Sulphate, Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium, Potassium, Lithium, Boron, Arsenic, Total hardness, Total dissolved solid and heavy metals (Iron, copper, Lead, Zinc, Nickel, Cobalt and Manganese) were analysed and quality deduced in comparison with quality standards of regulatory bodies, world health organization (WHO). Ground water occurs in the pore spaces of unconsolidated alluvial materials in the zone of saturation. The parameters of pH, specific conductance, Total dissolved solid (TDS) and Total hardness as CaCO3 in ground water sample varied from 7.1 to 8.9, 237 to 4500 micromhos/cm, 220 to 2910mg/litre, 120 to 890gm/litre. The concentration of Ca2+, Mg2+ Na+, K+, Li+, B, CO32-, HCO3−, Cl−, F−, NO3−, SO42−, varied from 7.0 to 165 mg/litre, 12 to 140mg/litre, 4.0 to 590 mg/litre, 1.0 to 335 mg/litre, < 0.2mg/lit, < 0.2 to 0.8mg/litre, Nil to 85mg/litre, 75to 675 mg/litre, 10 to 420 mg/litre, 0.2 to 4.0 mg/litre, < 1.0 to 246mg/litre, <2.0 to 1220 mg/litre, respectively. The range of heavy metal concentration are Fe=2.5 to 11.0 mg/litre, As=<0.01 to 0.08mg/litre, Cu= <0.1 to 0.1mg/litre, Pb= 0.1 to 0.7mg/litre, Zn =0.2 to 5.0 mg/litre Ni=0.01 to 0.09mg/litre, Co=0.03to 0.09 mg/litre and Mn = <0.01 to 0.74 mg/litre The assessment reveals that ground water have exceeded the desirable limits of WHO for drinking purpose in certain locations.
Alluvium, ground water, pollution, water quality.