Ghost Pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) - A Reservoir Plant for Therapeutic Applications: An Overview
Ex-Associated Professor, Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University - Uttar Pradesh, Sector-125, Noida-201 313, India
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Online Published on 29 January, 2022.
Ghost pepper also known as ‘Bhut jolokia’ or ‘Bih jolokia’, is grown in India's north-eastern states. The Assamese name ‘bhut’ relates to the plant's typical enormous pod size, whilst the term ‘bih’ means ‘poison’, denoting the plant's strong hotness in the fruits. Ghost pepper, world's hottest chilli, is at least two times hotter than Red Savina Habanero in terms of Scoville heat units (SHU). Thanks to the northeast region of India, which is considered a biodiversity hotspot with a unique ecological environment with hot and high-humidity conditions. In several regions of the world, the plant's fruit and leaves have been employed as ethnobotanical medicine. The high capsaicinoids concentration of the ghost pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) is well-known around the world. The fruit's extreme pungency is due to its high content of capsaicinoids according to phytochemical study. The two primary capsaicinoids that give chilli its pungency are capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin. Capsaicin has been proven in recent studies to have a wide range of medical applications including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, antidiabetic, antiarthritic, antibacterial, anticancer and pain-relieving properties. As a result, this review aims to highlight the most recent research and developments in ghost pepper, a plant with enormous economic potential in India's north east.
Ghost pepper, Capsaicinoids, Scoville heat units, Antioxidant, Antibacterial.