Assessment of ground water qualities of some areas of Imphal west district of Manipur during Pre-Monsoon – 4th Phase
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Fifteen ground water samples (S-1 to S-15) were collected from 12 hand pumps and 3 dug wells of Imphal West district of Manipur during pre-monsoon period(May) of 2015. They were analyzed for physicochemical parameters such as temperature, pH, TDS (total dissolved solids), electrical conductivity (EC), total alkalinity (TA) (and hence CO32- and HCO3−), total hardness (TH), Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+ and Cl−. Ground waters represented by S-1,S-2,S-10,S-11 and S-13 to S-15 are found to be fit for drinking purpose from physicochemical analysis point of view. But TDS values for S-3 and S-4, total alkalinity values for S-3 to S-9 and S-12, total harness value for S-8, concentration of Mg2+ for S-8, and concentrations of Na+ for S-3and S-4 are above their corresponding acceptable limits but below the permissible limits of BIS standard for drinking water and threshold limit of WHO (in case of Na+). So, some suitable treatments are necessary so as to keep the values/concentrations of the above mentioned parameters below their corresponding acceptable limits/threshold limit of BIS standard for drinking water and that of WHO. However, ground waters represented by S-3 to S-9 and S-12 are fit for drinking in absence of alternate sources. All the ground waters (S-1 to S-15) are fit for other domestic and irrigation purposes.
Further correlation coefficient data reveals that TA shows strong positive correlations with HCO3−, Na+ and Mg2+(r= 1, 0.892 and 0.649 respectively) but moderately strong positive correlation withCa2+(r=0.541) showing that the total alkalinity of such ground waters is due to the presence of NaHCO3, CaHCO3 and MgHCO3. Strong positive correlations of TH (total hardness) with Ca2+, Mg2+and HCO3−(r = 0.944,0.970 and 0.629 respectively) show that total hardness for these different ground waters, is due to the presence of CaHCO3 and MgHCO3.
Physicochemical parameters, drinking, irrigation, BIS, WHO and correlation co-efficient.