Assessment of physico-chemical characteristics of ground water quality of some areas of Imphal West district of Manipur during monsoon-2nd phase
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Thirteen (13) ground water samples were collected from the hand pumps of different sampling sites located within Imphal West district of Manipur during monsoon of 2014. They were analyzed for physico-chemical parameters such as temperature, pH, TDS (total dissolved solids), electrical conductivity (EC), total alkalinity (TA), CO32-, HCO3−, total hardness (TH), Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and Cl−. In case of ground water (S-12) of Wangdei Meitei Leikai, Langol, the values of all the physico-chemical parameters are within the desirable limits of BIS standards for drinking water as well as that of WHO and it is found to be fit for drinking from physico-chemical analyses point of view. However, in case of other remaining twelve (12) ground waters (S-1 to S-11 and S-13), the values of total alkalinity are beyond desirable limit (200mg/L) but below the permissible limit (600 mg/L) of BIS standards for drinking water. Again in case of ground water represented by S-2, the concentration of Mg2+ is beyond the desirable limit (30mg/L) but below the permissible limit (100mg/L) of BIS standards for drinking water. So, such ground waters (S-1 to S-11 and S-13) may also be used for drinking purpose in absence of alternate sources. However, some suitable treatments are necessary so as to keep the values of total alkalinity for ground waters S-1 to S-11 and S-13 and concentration of Mg2+ for ground water S-2 within the corresponding desirable limits of BIS standards for drinking water. Again, all the ground waters (S-1 to S-13) are found to be fit for other domestic purpose as their TDS values are less than 1000mg/L. On the basis of values of RSC(residual sodium carbonate), electrical conductivity and SAR(sodium adsorption ratio), all the thirteen (13) ground waters (S-1 to S-13) are found to be fit for irrigation purpose.
Further, on the basis of correlation co-efficient (r) values between various variable pairs of physico-chemical parameters, strong positive correlation exist between TDS and electrical conductivity (EC); and between Na+ and Cl−. Again, HCO3− shows moderately positive correlations with Ca2+ and Na+ showing that total alkalinity of different ground waters, is due to the presence of Ca(HCO3)2 and NaHCO3 mainly.
Ground water, monsoon, physico-chemical parameters, drinking, domestic and irrigation.