Heavy metals, oxidative stress and inflammation in pathophysiology of chronic kidney disease - a review
Derouiche Samir*, Cheradid Taissir, Guessoum Messaouda
Department of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Faculty of the Sciences of Nature and Life, El-Oued University, El Oued, 39000, El Oued, Algeria
*Corresponding Author E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Online published on 16 September, 2020.
This review aims at identifying the role of oxidative stress and inflammation as factors associated with chronic kidney disease pathophysiology. some risk factorsof chronic kidney disease which can be non-modifiable including; age, gender, ethnicity and family history and may be modified by pharmacotherapy or lifestyle such as Diabetes, hypertension, inflammation, anemia. Oxidative stress is associated with kidney disease progression. Inflammation is a redox-sensitive mechanism able to activate transcriptor factors such as NF-kB, which regulates inflammatory mediator gene expression. There is a strong relationship between oxidative stress and inflammation in chronic kidney disease, both are related to endothelial dysfunction, and reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid and protein oxidation products as well as advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are generated in response to inflammatory stimuli.As a conclusion, oxidative stress and inflammation are essential factors in the development and complication of the CKD, and therefore it is necessary to take into account the mitigation of these two phenomena in any approved treatment program.We suggest also that exposure to heavy metals can negatively alter the function of the remaining functional nephrons, which can lead to faster and additional cell death and glomerulosclerosis and from it to chronic renal failure.
CKD, Oxidative stress, Inflammation, Glomerular filtration, Heavy metals.