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Year : 2023, Volume : 42, Issue : 4
First page : ( 651) Last page : ( 666)
Print ISSN : 0970-9061. Online ISSN : 0974-018X.

Gender Inequality in India: A Regional Perspective

Dutta Rituporna1, Upadhyay Vandana2

1Ph.D. Research Scholar, Department of Economics, Faculty of Social Sciences, Rajiv Gandhi University, Itanagar, Arunachal Pradesh, Email: ritupornadutta4@gmail.com

2Professor, Department of Economics, Faculty of Social Sciences, Rajiv Gandhi University, Itanagar, Arunachal Pradesh, Email: vandanaupadhyay.rgu@gmail.com; vandana.upadhyay@rgu.ac.in, respectively

Online Published on 09 February, 2024.


The present study attempts to investigate gender inequality in India from a regional standpoint. An attempt has been made to investigate each area of India independently in order to determine the true image of gender inequality in our nation, namely North-East India, Eastern India, Central India, Northern India, Western India, and South India. The current analysis is entirely based on secondary data. This study is based on the development of the Gender Inequality Index (GII) for all six representative sample states from India’s six geographical regions. The extent of inequality in women’s and men’s achievement has been measured across three dimensions: reproductive health, empowerment, and labour market involvement. According to the study, there is less gender inequality in Madhya Pradesh (with a Gender Inequality Index score of 0.33), a typical state in Central India, than in other areas of India. The Gender Inequality Index score of both Tamil Nadu (with a Gender Inequality Index score of 0.46), which is a representative state of South India, and Madhya Pradesh, is better than the South Asian region (Gender Inequality Index score of 0.508) and close to the global average (Gender Inequality Index score 0.465). In India, the status of gender equality has improved in recent decades, yet females continue to outperform males in practically all parameters of growth. In all the study states, females’ political engagement is much lower than male participation. Similarly, the proportion of women in India’s workforce is lower than that of men. According to the study, gender inequality is quite severe in Bihar (Gender Inequality Index score 0.64), a sample state in Eastern India. Bihar performs worse than the other sample states on practically every indicator of gender inequality. In Bihar, female labour force participation, achievements of females in higher education etc. are very low. Also, the adolescent fertility rate is very high in this state. Among the many other reasons for gender inequality, Bihar’s socioeconomic system, which is still patriarchal with a strong preference for son, is one of the factors contributing to the state’s substantial gender inequality.



Gender, Gender inequality, Gender inequality index, Gender parity.


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