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Agricultural Economics Research Review
Year : 2022, Volume : 35, Issue : 1
First page : ( 45) Last page : ( 56)
Print ISSN : 0971-3441. Online ISSN : 0974-0279.
Article DOI : 10.5958/0974-0279.2022.00004.0

Groundwater use and sustainability in Punjab Agriculture: Insights from a field survey

Vatta Kamal1,*, Bhogal Shruti2, Green Adam S.3, Petrie Cameron A.3, Sharma Heena2, Dixit Sandeep2

1Department of Economics and Sociology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab141004, India

2Centers for International Projects Trust, New Delhi110017, India

3Department of Archaeology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 3DZ

*Corresponding author: kmlvatta@yahoo.com

Online Published on 06 October, 2022.


Paddy is a water-intensive crop, and its cultivation is the prime cause of the depletion of groundwater resources in Punjab. We survey paddy farmers’ crop choices, water use, and opinions on the causes of the depletion of groundwater resources. To make long-term groundwater use sustainable, farmers can adopt water saving technologies and practices and diversify crops. But adoption is abysmal, and diversification into alternative crops entails high production and marketing risks. To improve adoption, the government must promote water saving technologies and practices. And assured marketing at remunerative prices is a prerequisite for crop diversification.



Groundwater sustainability, Water-saving technologies, Crop diversification, Punjab agriculture.


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