Assessment of TDS, Total Hardness and Nitrate in Groundwater of North-West Rajasthan, India
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Technological advancements in agriculture have contributed enormously in ensuring food security. Accordingly, studies were made to evaluate the chemical composition of groundwater in different rural habitations of Indira Gandhi Nahar Project (IGNP), Bhakra and Gang canal catchment areas in North-West Rajasthan. A total of 300 groundwater samples were analyzed for total dissolved solids (TDS), total hardness (TH), nitrate and a few other parameters. TDS values were found to be higher than the permissible limit (1500 mg/l-WHO) in 29%, 67% and 60% of the water samples from IGNP, Bhakra and Gang canal catchment villages. Total hardness (TH) was higher than its permissible limit (200 mg/l WHO) in 84%, 92% and 95% of the water samples. Nitrate concentration ranged from 3.70 to 82.11 mg/l, 0.34 to 50.70 mg/l and 0.50 to 278.68 mg/l in IGNP, Bhakra and Gang canal catchment area, with respective mean values of 21.54, 13.65 and 13.41 mg/l. Since the area is free from industrial activity, hydro geological features and heavy use of DAP fertilizer are the most likely sources of degraded groundwater quality. Residents of this zone are poor, mostly illiterate farmers, who use the groundwater for irrigation and for domestic consumption without prior treatment.
Ground water, total dissolved solids, total hardness, canal catchment, north west Rajasthan.