Biological activity of Simarouba amara (Aubl.) bark
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Simarouba amara (Aubl.) bark belongs to Simaroubaceae family and used to treat diarrhoea. S. amara (Aubl.) aqueous bark extract (SAAE) was qualitatively, quantitatively analyzed for phytochemicals and presence of terpenoids, phenol and flavonoids spectrophotometrically. SAAE was further evaluated for acute toxicity (1000-5000mg/kg b.w), anti-inflammatory and immunostimulatory activity in female BALB/c mice. Cell migration inhibition in peritoneal exudates was assessed in carrageenan induced peritonitis. Further, studies focused on immunostimulation in cyclophospahmide (CP) induced immuno-suppressed mice. Cell mediated (macrophages, T- cell, TH cells) and humoral immune (immunoglobulins) responses were evaluated after treating with SAAE in groups of mice. Pre-treatment of SAAE (100, 200, and 300mg/kg, b.w, p.o.) showed antiinflammatory activity by reducing the accumulation of polymorpho neuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) and nitrite (NO-2) in dose dependent manner. At 300mg/kg b.w SAAE reduced the PMNLs count (2.2×106 cells/mL) and NO-2 (5.3μM±1.5) significantly (P<0.001) with half of inhibitory concentration (IC50) at 194.95mg/mL and 197.64mg/mL respectively. SAAE was successful in stimulating the immune system in immune suppressed mice (increased the differential, total WBC, splenocytes, RBC, platelets and haemoglobin level) significantly (P < 0.01) compared to CP induced group and control. SAAE at the dose 300mg/kg b.w improved the macrophage activity to engulf the carbon particles in circulation system in carbon clearance test. Whereas SAAE increased the T-lymphocytes, rosettes formation and increased TH cells against SRBC. Significant results in T-cell population test and delayed hypersensitivity test indicates the cell mediate response and activation of adaptive immunity. Moreover dose dependent increase in antibody titer test exhibited the humoral immune resonse of SAAE. In addition, SAAE displayed nontoxic nature even at the highest dose 5000mg/kg b.w in an acute toxicity study. It could be due to the presence of phytoconstituents like proteins, carbohydrates, cardiac glycosides, tannins, diterpenoids along with terpenoids (260μg/g), flavonoid (100μg/g), and phenol (144μg/g). The synergetic activity of secondary metabolites of SAAE was responsible for compelling outcome in anti-inflammatory, immunostimulatory, cell mediated and humoral immune response.
Erythrocyte rosettes, Heamagglutination, IC50, PMNLs, Rate of carbon clearance.