Assessment of Protective Role of Quinoa against Sodium Fluoride Induced Skeletal Deformities in Mice Fetuses
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Rajasthan has the highest number of habitations where groundwater contains fluoride specifically in the region of Thar Desert. Infact, Pan India is affected by fluoride problem, but Rajasthan is the only state where almost all the districts are affected by high fluoride. High Fluoride concentration in drinking water has been shown to cause skeletal and dental abnormalities, besides others such as osteosclerosis. It has been shown through medical research that almost all the vital systems and organs in the body including thyroid, kidney, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, endocrine, neurological, reproductive, developmental, molecular level, immunity etc. gets affected by concentration of Fluoride when it exceeds WHO standard values. This finding facilitated us to go in further and find the effect of Sodium Fluoride (NaF) when given to pregnant mice through drinking water at various fetal developmental stages with focus on study of developmental pattern of the skeletal system of growing fetuses followed by a protective role of phytomaterials against it. In this study Quinoa seed, were selected because of its high nutritive value and latest findings indicating its antiteratogenic nature. The study was planned in such a way that females in question were subjected to fluoride treatment prior to mating, during pregnancy and post partum period when weaning process is on. The observations clearly indicates that post Sodium fluoride treatment there was a reduction in size and general body weight of fetuses. Besides this, there was an increase in the number of immature fetuses. Various skeletal anomalies were also observed, such as partially ossified ribs, reduced skull ossification, reduced sternebrae etc. Chenopodium Quinoa, also called Superfood due to its high quality of protein and wide range of minerals and vitamins was used for its protective role as mentioned earlier. In this study NaF along with Quinoa seeds were administered to treated animals. These animals showed improvement in maternal weight, increase in body weight and size of fetuses as well as bone ossification. These findings suggest that Quinoa seeds possibly have a protective effect against Sodium Fluoride induced teratogenicity.
Skeletal anomalies, Skull ossification, Teratogenecity, Quinoa, Sodium Fluoride.