Studies on Status of Oxidative Stress related Molecules and Enzymes in Obese with and without Diabetes in the Northern region of India
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This study was done to assess the interrelationship of “oxidative stress-related molecules & enzymes” with obesity and diabetes. Xanthine oxidase (XO), malondialdehyde (MDA) representing lipid peroxidation and protein oxidative stress parameters such as advanced oxidation of protein products (AOPP), protein carbonyls (PC) and antioxidant enzyme activities in obese with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were studied. This study enrolled 41 healthy controls, 41 obese non-diabetics, and 41obese T2DM patients. Biochemical parameters related to diabetes, oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes were measured in all groups. The levels of XO, MDA, AOPP, and PC were significantly increased in obese with and without T2DM as compared to healthy controls (P < 0.001). However levels of antioxidants such as reduced glutathione (GSH) and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were significantly decreased in obese with and without T2DM as compared to healthy control (P < 0.001 or P < 0.05). Positive correlations were found among XO with MDA (P = 0.006), PC (P = 0.012) in obese non-diabetic subjects and with MDA (P < 0.001), AOPP (P = 0.026), and PC (P = 0.003) in obese T2DM patients. Positive correlation were seen in MDA with AOPP (P = 0.017), PC (P = 0.046) in obese non-diabetic subjects and MDA with AOPP (P < 0.001), PC (P < 0.001) in obese T2DM patients. Also observed a significant correlation between AOPP and PC (P < 0.001) in both groups of obese. The present study results suggest that increased activity of xanthine oxidase, higher lipid peroxide generation, and higher levels of protein oxidative stress parameters (AOPP and PC) may be a most considerable mechanism in reducing the activity of antioxidant enzymes in obese with and without diabetic groups as compared to control group. However, extent of derangements is lower in obese subjects as compared to diabetic patients, thereby suggesting that obese subjects have a higher risk of diabetes as well as early onset of diabetes.
Xanthine oxidase, Malondialdehyde, Protein carbonyl, Oxidative stress, Antioxidants.