Toxicological Characteristics of Leachate from Non-Sanitary Municipal Solid Waste Landfill
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This research evaluated the toxicity and hepatotoxic effects of non-sanitary MSW landfill leachates on freshwater fish, Oreochromis niloticus. Toxicity test was conducted based on the OECD Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals. Fish was exposed to different leachate concentrations for 96 hours under static method. Acute mortality was closely monitored and analyzed using the Probit method. During the toxicity test, observations of fish test samples were performed on behaviour, mortality, and anatomical pathology. Results showed the content of ammonia, nitrate, sulphate, BOD, COD, and Zn in non-sanitary landfill leachate of Cot Padang Nila was found in high concentration. Against the leachate, freshwater fish, Oreochromis niloticus has acute mortality, LC50 for 96 hours at the value of 20.172%. High mortality rate of fish was strongly influenced by the concentration level given (P<0.05). During the toxicity test, observations of fish behavioural changes showed symptoms of acute and sub-acute poison, including acceleration of operculum motion, hyperactivity, sudden jerks and loss of swimming power, and hyperpigmentation. Some fish organs undergo pathologic changes in the eyes, fins, scales, gills, and spleen. Histopathologically, gill tissue changes include epithelial release of lamella, hyperplasia, lamella fusion, and necrosis. The histopathologic features of liver show changes including fat degeneration, congestion, haemorrhage, inflammatory cell infiltration, and hepatocyte cell necrosis.
Landfill, Municipal Solid Waste, Toxicology, Leachate, Fish.