Effect of Capparis spinosa L. Leaf bud Extract on The Hematological and Histological Changes Induced by Cyclophosphamide in Mice
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Medicinal plants have been suggested to be chemoprotective on account of antioxidants and antitoxic properties. Capparis spinosa L. one of the medicinal plants is widely used in folk medicine. Therefore, the present study aimed to find a protective efficacy of ethanolic and aqueous extract leaf bud of C. spinosa against toxic effects of cyclophosphamide (CP) in mice. Results showed significant decreasing (p≤0.05) in red blood cells (RBCs) hemoglobin (HB), packed cell volume (PCV%) and platelets count (PLT) reach to 7.36×1012/L, 96.83g/L, 31.6% and 925.0×1012/L respectively, in blood of mice treated with CP compared with control group which was 8.58×1012/L, 122.33g/L,.44.41% and 2194.16×1012/L, respectively. Significant decreasing in the values of white blood cells number (WBCs), and percentage of lymphocyte and monocyte, reach to 3.36×109/L,26.61% and 4.86% in blood of mice treated with CP compared with control. Significant increasing were showed in some liver enzymes (AST, and ALT) when exposed to CP which reach to 166.0U/L and 63.16U/L respectively, compared with control group. While groups treated with extract showed non significant differences compared with control group in the values of blood parameters and enzymes. Histopathological changes in liver when mice treated with CP represent by dilated of central vein, swelling of hepatocyte, focal accumulation of inflammatory cells, excessive vacuolated of hepatocyte, glycogenic degeneration, congested of central vein with sinusoid, and vacuolated of cytoplasm of hepatocytes with irregular nucleolus. While kidney showed degeneration of epithelial cells as foaming lumen, Clear hemorrhagic interstitial some of renal tubules are closure with degeneration of epithelial cells, Congestion of blood vessels. The tissues of kidney showed cloudy swelling of epithelial cells and hemorrhages, some of cells were elongated towered lumen, and there were inflammatory cells in interstitial tissue. Results showed the important role of leaf bud extract of C. spinosa in keeping the normal values of blood parameters and prevent histological changes as control.
Cyclophosphamide, C. spinosa, blood parameter, serum enzymes ALT, AST. Histopathology. Liver, kidney.